2What is foodborne illness? A foodborne illness is a disease that is transmitted to humans by food.
3Food Infection vs. Food Intoxication Food Infection – the microorganism itself grows inside your body and is the main source of your symptomsMost common - Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, Norwalk, TrichinosisFood Intoxication – a chemical or natural toxin (often a by product of the bacteria present in food) causes your symptoms or illness.Most common – Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia coli 0157, Clostridium Perfringens and Clostridium Botulinum
4High Protein FoodsMoist, high-protein, and/or low acid foods are potentially dangerous.High protein foods consist of milk or milk products, eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, shrimp, lobster, crab.
5Other possible sources include… Potatoes, tofu and other soy protein foods, raw seed sprouts such as alfalfa or bean sprouts, green leafy vegetables, berries and tomatoes also pose a hazard.These foods can support rapid growth of infectious or disease-causing microorganisms.
6Who is at risk?Everyone, but infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people who are chronically ill have a greater risk of developing a foodborne illness because their immune systems may not be able to fight off the bacteria and viruses that cause the illness.Those at greater risk should avoid consuming potentially hazardous foods that are raw or not fully cooked.
7How does food become hazardous? Food becomes hazardous by contamination. Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food. Food can become contaminated from chemical, physical or biological sources.
8Chemical hazardsChemical hazards include substances such as cleaning solutions and sanitizers.
9Physical hazardsPhysical hazards are foreign particles, like glass, metal, or fingernails.
10Biological hazardsBiological hazards come mainly from microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and parasites.
11What is Cross-contamination? Cross-contamination is the transportation of harmful substances to food by:Hands that touch raw foods, such as chicken, then touch food that will not be cooked, like salad ingredients.Surfaces, like cutting boards or cleaning cloths, that touch raw foods, are not cleaned and sanitized, then touch ready-to-eat food.Raw or contaminated foods that touch or drip fluids on cooked or ready-to-eat foods.
12What should you know about microorganisms? Microorganisms are everywhere. You may not see, taste, or smell them, but they hide on your body, in the air, on kitchen counters and utensils, and in food. The main microorganisms are viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria.
13VirusesViruses are the tiniest, and probably the simplest, form of life.They are not able to reproduce outside a living cell yet can survive for a period of time even on inanimate objects, such as door handles, pencils, tabletops, backpacks, etc.
14Some viruses are extremely resistant to heat and cold. The food is mainly a transportation device to get from one host to another.Hepatitis A and norovirus have been identified as the cause of many foodborne illness outbreaks.
15Parasites Parasites need to live on or in a host to survive. Examples of parasites that may contaminate food or water are Trichinella spiralis (trichinosis) that affects pork and Anisakis roundworm that affects fish.
16Fungi Fungi can be microscopic or as big as a giant mushroom. Fungi are found in the air, soil, plants, animals, water, and some food.Molds and yeast are fungi. Molds may produce dangerous toxins in food. Yeast development in foods will affect quality.
17What is the greatest threat to food safety? Of all the microorganisms, bacteria are the greatest threat to food safety.Bacteria are single-celled, living organisms that can grow quickly at favorable temperatures.
18Bad BacteriaSome bacteria are infectious disease-causing agents called pathogens, that use the nutrients found in potentially hazardous foods to multiply.Some bacteria are not infectious on their own, but when they multiply in potentially hazardous food, they eject toxins that poison humans when the food is eaten.
19Under the right conditions, bacteria can double every 10 to 30 minutes Under the right conditions, bacteria can double every 10 to 30 minutes. A single bacterium will double with each division—two become four, four become eight, and so on. A single cell can become billions in 10 to 12 hours.
20Some Bacteria Can Be Good Some bacteria are useful. We use them to make foods like cheese, buttermilk, sauerkraut, pickles, and yogurt.
21How Does Food Become Contaminated? Food handling practices are risky when they allow harmful bacteria to contaminate and grow in food.If you touch a food during preparation, you may transfer several thousand bacteria to its surface.
22Keep Hot Foods Hot and Cold Foods Cold! Bacteria grow fastest in the temperature range between 40°F and 140°FThis is known as the Temperature Danger Zone.
23Handle Food Safely!Bacteria are found on the hair, skin, mouth, nose and in the throat of healthy people.According to one estimate, nearly 50 percent of healthy food handlers carry disease agents that can be transmitted by food.
24The most important tool you have to prevent foodborne illness is good personal hygiene. Personal hygiene is the way a person maintains their health, appearance and cleanliness.A cough or sneeze can transmit thousands of microorganisms that may cause disease.
25Wash your hands often!Your hands can be the most potentially dangerous serving equipment you use.Scratching your scalp, running your fingers through your hair, or touching a pimple can cause the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms into food.
26Symptoms of Foodborne Illness Symptoms of foodborne illnesses may take hours or even days to appear.Most common symptoms include: abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, and in some cases death.Since the symptoms are so similar to the flu, some people may not realize they have a foodborne illness.
27ReviewFoodborne illnesses are caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.Every person is at risk of foodborne illness.May be serious for very young, very old, people with long term illnessReaction may occur in a few hours or up to several days after exposureFoodborne Illnesses can be preventableSymptomsAbdominal cramps, headache, vomiting, diarrhea (may be bloody), fever, death.
28Journal – Do think the food you eat at home is safe Journal – Do think the food you eat at home is safe? What about the food you eat in restaurants? Why or why not? What can you do to help keep it safe to eat?