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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 8 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 8 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 8 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Intelligence

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intelligence The Concept of Intelligence Controversies and Group Comparisons The Development of Intelligence The Extremes of Intelligence

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Intelligence? Similar to thinking and memory skills Cannot be directly measured Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences Individual differences are stable, consistent The Concept of Intelligence

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intelligence Tests The Binet Tests –Mental age (MA) — individual’s level of mental development relative to others –Intelligence quotient (IQ) — individual’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 Normal distribution — symmetrical distribution of scores around a mean The Concept of Intelligence

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores The Concept of Intelligence Fig. 8.1

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Wechsler Scales Overall IQ Verbal IQ –Six verbal subscales Performance IQ –Five performance subscales The Concept of Intelligence

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Tests Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests are individually administered –Requires extensive information outside testing situation More convenient and economical than individual tests, but examiner cannot –Establish rapport –Determine level of anxiety The Concept of Intelligence

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests Intelligence tests: –substantially correlated with school performance –moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations about individuals Other factors also affect success The Concept of Intelligence

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Multiple Intelligences Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities –Spearman’s two-factor theory: factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors –Thurstone’s multiple-factor theory; seven abilities –Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences; certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage The Concept of Intelligence

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Multiple Intelligences The Concept of Intelligence Two-factor theory Spearman’s theory that individuals have both general intelligence and specific intelligences Multiple- factor theory Intelligence is seven primary mental abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, number ability, spatial visualization, associative memory, reasoning, perceptual speed Gardner’s Theory Eight types of intelligence: verbal, math, spatial, interpersonal, bodily- kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, and naturalist skills

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom Allow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent Attention given to understanding oneself and others The Concept of Intelligence

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Three main types of intelligence – Analytic – Creative – Practical Assessing Sternberg Triarchic Ability Theory (STAT) – Effective in predicting college GPA – More research needed The Concept of Intelligence

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Triarchic Theory in the Classroom Analytic ability favored in conventional schools Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers Practical students may do better outside school The Concept of Intelligence

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Emotional Intelligence Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively Four aspects – Perceiving emotions – Understanding emotions – Facilitating thought – Managing emotions The Concept of Intelligence

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Comparing the Intelligences The Concept of Intelligence Fig. 8.3

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Do People Have One or Many Intelligences? Many argue research base to support theories not yet developed Some say Gardner’s classification seems arbitrary Some experts who argue for general intelligence believe individuals also have specific intellectual abilities The Concept of Intelligence

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Genetic Influences –Jensen argued heredity; studies of twins –Adoption studies: educational levels of biological parents better predictor of IQ –Heritability: fraction of variance in IQ in a population that is attributed to genetics The Concept of Intelligence

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Influence of Heredity and Environment Environmental Influences –Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably Parent communication Schooling –Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world –Flynn effect The Concept of Intelligence

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Group Comparisons and Issues Cross-cultural comparisons problematic –Different cultures define intelligence differently –Practical and academic intelligence can develop independently Cultural bias in testing –Culture-fair tests: intelligence tests intended not to be culturally biased The Concept of Intelligence

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic Comparisons The Bell Curve African Americans students average lower intelligence test scores than White students –Individual scores vary considerably SES may have more effect than ethnicity; gap narrows in college

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Ethnic and Gender Comparisons Stereotype threat — fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing –Some studies confirm existence –Others believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gap Gender differences in intellectual abilities –Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tests of Infant Intelligence Gesell – Distinguishes normal from abnormal infants – Four categories of behavior Motor Language Adaptive Personal-social – Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ) The Development of Intelligence

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tests of Infant Intelligence Bayley Scales of Infant Development – Three components Mental scale Motor scale Infant behavior profile – Diagnoses developmental delays – Overall scores do not correlate highly with IQ scores obtained later in childhood The Development of Intelligence

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Tests of Infant Intelligence Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence – Increasingly being used – Focuses on infant’s ability to process information – Obtains similar results cross-culturally – Correlated with measures of intelligence in older children The Development of Intelligence

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Stability and Change in Intelligence through Adolescence Group scores remain stable –Strong relation between IQ scores obtained at ages 6, 8, and 9 and IQ scores obtained at 10 –Correlation between IQ in preadolescent years and 18 still statistically significant Individual scores vary more –As much as 40 points in one study The Development of Intelligence

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Intelligence in Adulthood Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence – Crystallized intelligence Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age – Fluid intelligence Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on – Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cohort testing The Development of Intelligence

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span The Development of Intelligence Fig. 8.7

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Seattle Longitudinal Study – Spatial orientation – Inductive reasoning – Perceptual speed The Development of Intelligence Since 1956, studied – Vocabulary – Verbal memory – Number computations Criticism: intellectual abilities more likely to decline in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal assessments

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities The Development of Intelligence Fig. 8.8

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Intellectual Change The Development of Intelligence Fig. 8.9

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Mechanics Hardware of the mind Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, memory, organizing, and discrimination Strong influence of biology and heredity Decline with age The Development of Intelligence

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Pragmatics Culture-based software of the mind Skills include – Reading and writing – Language comprehension – Educational qualifications – Professional skills – Knowledge about self and life skills Can improve with aging The Development of Intelligence

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Wisdom Expert knowledge on practical aspects of life permitting excellent judgment about important matters – High levels of wisdom are rare – Emerges late adolescence and early adulthood – Factors other than age are critical – Personality-related factors better predictors of wisdom The Development of Intelligence

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability – Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence – Difficulty adapting to everyday life – Onset of characteristics by age 18 Some causes include – Organic retardation – Cultural-familial retardation – Brain damage due to accident The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Classification of Mental Retardation based on IQ The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Fig. 8.11

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Giftedness Above-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet –Precocity –March to their own drummer –Passion to master Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Creative Thinking The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Creativity Produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity Gives one correct answer; is characteristic of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests Ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Steps in the Creative Process Preparation Incubation Insight Evaluation Elaboration Not all creative people follow in linear sequence The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Creative Thinkers Flexibility and playful thinking Inner motivation Willingness to risk Objective evaluation of work The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changes in Adulthood Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties 80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50 Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining Age of decline varies by domain The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Living a More Creative Life Try to be surprised by something every day Try to surprise at least one person every day Write down each day what surprised you and how you surprised others When something sparks your interest, follow it Wake up in the morning with a specific goal Take charge of your schedule Spend time in stimulating settings The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 8


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