Presentation on theme: "intelligence The Concept of Intelligence"— Presentation transcript:
1intelligence The Concept of Intelligence Controversies and Group ComparisonsThe Development of IntelligenceThe Extremes of Intelligence and Creativityintelligence
2What Is Intelligence? Similar to thinking and memory skills. The Concept of IntelligenceWhat Is Intelligence?Similar to thinking and memory skills.Cannot be directly measured.Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences.Individual differences are stable, consistent.
3Intelligence Tests The Binet Test: Mental age (MA)- The Concept of IntelligenceIntelligence TestsThe Binet Test:Mental age (MA)-Individual’s level of mental development relative to others.Chronological age (CA)-Age from birth.Intelligence quotient (IQ)-Individual’s MA divided CA, multiplied by 100.
4The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores The Concept of IntelligenceThe Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores
5The Wechsler Scales WAIS-IV — For adults. WISC-IV — For children. The Concept of IntelligenceThe Wechsler ScalesWAIS-IV — For adults.WISC-IV — For children.Provides overall IQMeasures verbal IQSix verbal subscalesMeasures performance IQFive performance subscales
6The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests The Concept of IntelligenceThe Use and Misuse of Intelligence TestsIntelligence tests:Tools dependant upon user skill and knowledge.Substantially correlated with school performance.Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases.IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies.Measures only current performance.
7Theories of Multiple Intelligences The Concept of IntelligenceTheories of Multiple IntelligencesControversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities:Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory:Factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors.Thurstone’s Multiple-Factor Theory:Seven abilities.Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences:Certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage.
8Theories of Multiple Intelligences The Concept of IntelligenceTheories of Multiple IntelligencesTwo-factor theoryIndividuals have both general intelligence and specific intelligences.Multiple-factor theoryIntelligence is seven primary mental abilities:1) Verbal comprehension 2) Word fluency3) Number ability 4) Spatial visualization5) Associative memory 6) Reasoning7) Perceptual speed.Gardner’s TheoryEight types of intelligence: )Verbal 2)Math 3)Spatial 4)Interpersonal 5)Bodily-kinesthetic 6)Musical 7)Intrapersonal 8)Naturalist skills
9Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom The Concept of IntelligenceMultiple Intelligences in the ClassroomAllow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent.Attention given to understanding oneself and others.
10Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory The Concept of IntelligenceSternberg’s Triarchic TheoryThree main types of intelligence:AnalyticCreativePracticalConcerns about Traditional Classroom:Analytic ability favored in conventional schools.Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers.Practical students may do better outside school.
11Emotional Intelligence The Concept of IntelligenceEmotional IntelligencePerceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively.Four aspects:Perceiving and expressing emotions.Understanding emotions.Facilitating thought and affect of moods.Managing emotions.
12Comparing the Intelligences The Concept of IntelligenceComparing the Intelligences
13The Influence of Heredity and Environment The Concept of IntelligenceThe Influence of Heredity and EnvironmentControversies and Group Comparisons:Genetic InfluencesAdoption studies-Educational levels of biological parents better predictor of IQ.HeritabilityInfluence increases in aging.Environmental Influences:Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex-Socioeconomic statusParent communicationSchoolingFlynn Effect:Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology?
14Group Comparisons and Issues The Concept of IntelligenceGroup Comparisons and IssuesCross-cultural comparisons problematic:Different cultures define intelligence differentlyPractical and academic intelligence can develop independentlyPredictive validity affected by ethnicityCultural bias in testing:Culture-fair tests:Intelligence tests intended not to be culturally biasedThe Bell Curve:African American students average lower intelligence test scores than White students.Individual scores vary considerably
15Ethnic and Gender Comparisons Stereotype threat:Fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing-Some studies confirm existenceOthers believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gapGender differences in intellectual abilities:Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores; controversy over gender differences.
16Tests of Infant Intelligence The Development of IntelligenceTests of Infant IntelligenceGesell:Distinguishes normal from abnormal infantsFour categories of behavior-MotorLanguageAdaptivePersonal-socialCombined overall score is developmentalquotient (DQ)
17Tests of Infant Intelligence The Development of IntelligenceTests of Infant IntelligenceBayley Scales of Infant Development:Three components-Mental scaleMotor scaleInfant behavior profileDiagnoses developmental delaysOverall scores do not correlate highly withIQ scores obtained later in childhood
18Tests of Infant Intelligence The Development of IntelligenceTests of Infant IntelligenceFagan Test of Infant Intelligence:Increasingly being usedFocuses on infant’s ability to process informationObtains similar results cross-culturallyCorrelated with measures of intelligence in older children
19Stability and Change in Intelligence through Adolescence The Development of IntelligenceStability and Change in Intelligence through AdolescenceGroup scores remain stable:Strong relation between IQ scores obtained at ages 6, 8, and 9 and IQ scores obtained at 10.Correlation between IQ in preadolescent years and 18 still statistically significant.Individual scores vary more:Children are adaptiveIQ scores fluctuate dramatically in childhood
20Intelligence in Adulthood The Development of IntelligenceIntelligence in AdulthoodFluid and Crystallized Intelligence:Crystallized intelligence-Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age.Fluid intelligence-Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on.
21Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span The Development of IntelligenceFluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span
22Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities The Development of IntelligenceLongitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities
23Cognitive Functioning The Development of IntelligenceCognitive FunctioningCognitive Mechanics:Hardware of the mindSpeed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, memory, organizing, and discriminationStrong influence of biology and heredityDeclines with ageCognitive Pragmatics:Culture-based software of the mindSkills include:Reading and writing skillsLanguage comprehensionEducational qualificationsProfessional skillsKnowledge about self and life skillsCan improve with aging
24Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability: The Extremes of Intelligence and CreativityMental RetardationCondition of limited mental ability:Low IQ on traditional test of intelligenceDifficulty adapting to everyday lifeOnset of characteristics by age 18Range of impairments vary
25The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity GiftednessAbove-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet-PrecocityMarch to their own drummerPassion to masterIntelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true
26Creative Thinking Creativity Convergent thinking Divergent thinking The Extremes of Intelligence and CreativityCreative ThinkingDivergent thinkingConvergent thinkingCreativityProduces many answers to thesame question and is characteristicof creativityGives one correct answer; is characteristic of thinking tested by standardized intelligence testsAbility to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with uniquesolutions to problems
27Creative Thinkers Characteristics: Flexibility and playful thinking The Extremes of Intelligence and CreativityCreative ThinkersCharacteristics:Flexibility and playful thinkingBrainstormingInner motivationWillingness to riskObjective evaluation of workChanges in Adulthood:Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before decliningAge of decline varies by domain
28Living a More Creative Life The Extremes of Intelligence and CreativityLiving a More Creative LifeTry to be surprised by something every dayTry to surprise at least one person every dayWrite down the surprises of each dayFollow sparked interestsWake up in the morning with a specific goalTake charge of your scheduleSpend time in stimulating settings