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 The Concept of Intelligence  Controversies and Group Comparisons  The Development of Intelligence  The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity.

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Presentation on theme: " The Concept of Intelligence  Controversies and Group Comparisons  The Development of Intelligence  The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity."— Presentation transcript:

1  The Concept of Intelligence  Controversies and Group Comparisons  The Development of Intelligence  The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

2 What Is Intelligence?  Similar to thinking and memory skills.  Cannot be directly measured.  Ability to solve problems; adapt to and learn from everyday experiences.  Individual differences are stable, consistent. The Concept of Intelligence

3 Intelligence Tests  The Binet Test: Mental age (MA)- ○ Individual’s level of mental development relative to others. Chronological age (CA)- ○ Age from birth. Intelligence quotient (IQ)- ○ Individual’s MA divided CA, multiplied by 100. The Concept of Intelligence

4 The Normal Curve and Stanford-Binet IQ Scores The Concept of Intelligence

5 The Wechsler Scales  WAIS-IV — For adults.  WISC-IV — For children. Provides overall IQ Measures verbal IQ ○ Six verbal subscales Measures performance IQ ○ Five performance subscales The Concept of Intelligence

6 The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests  Intelligence tests: Tools dependant upon user skill and knowledge. Substantially correlated with school performance. Moderately correlated with work performance; correlation decreases as experience increases. IQ tests can easily lead to false expectations and generalizations; self-fulfilling prophecies. Measures only current performance. The Concept of Intelligence

7 Theories of Multiple Intelligences  Controversy over breaking intelligence down into multiple abilities: Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory: ○ Factor analysis correlates test scores into clusters or factors. Thurstone’s Multiple-Factor Theory: ○ Seven abilities. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: ○ Certain cognitive abilities can survive brain damage. The Concept of Intelligence

8 Theories of Multiple Intelligences The Concept of Intelligence Two-factor theory Individuals have both general intelligence and specific intelligences. Multiple- factor theory Intelligence is seven primary mental abilities: 1) Verbal comprehension 2) Word fluency 3) Number ability 4) Spatial visualization 5) Associative memory 6) Reasoning 7) Perceptual speed. Gardner’s Theory Eight types of intelligence: 1)Verbal 2)Math 3)Spatial 4)Interpersonal 5)Bodily-kinesthetic 6)Musical 7)Intrapersonal 8)Naturalist skills

9 Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom  Allow students to discover and explore domains in which they have natural curiosity and talent.  Attention given to understanding oneself and others. The Concept of Intelligence

10 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory  Three main types of intelligence: Analytic Creative Practical  Concerns about Traditional Classroom: Analytic ability favored in conventional schools. Creative students may be reprimanded or marked down for nonconformist answers. Practical students may do better outside school. The Concept of Intelligence

11 Emotional Intelligence  Perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively.  Four aspects: Perceiving and expressing emotions. Understanding emotions. Facilitating thought and affect of moods. Managing emotions. The Concept of Intelligence

12 Comparing the Intelligences The Concept of Intelligence

13 The Influence of Heredity and Environment  Controversies and Group Comparisons: Genetic Influences Adoption studies- ○ Educational levels of biological parents better predictor of IQ. Heritability ○ Influence increases in aging.  Environmental Influences: Modifications in environment can change IQ scores considerably; very complex- ○ Socioeconomic status ○ Parent communication ○ Schooling Flynn Effect: ○ Intelligence test scores increase each year around the world; effects of technology? The Concept of Intelligence

14 Group Comparisons and Issues  Cross-cultural comparisons problematic: Different cultures define intelligence differently Practical and academic intelligence can develop independently Predictive validity affected by ethnicity  Cultural bias in testing: Culture-fair tests: ○ Intelligence tests intended not to be culturally biased  The Bell Curve: African American students average lower intelligence test scores than White students. Individual scores vary considerably The Concept of Intelligence

15 Ethnic and Gender Comparisons  Stereotype threat: Fear of confirming negative stereotypes raises anxiety in testing- ○ Some studies confirm existence ○ Others believe stereotype threat is exaggerated to explain gap  Gender differences in intellectual abilities: Males more likely to have extremely high or low scores; controversy over gender differences.

16 Tests of Infant Intelligence  Gesell: Distinguishes normal from abnormal infants Four categories of behavior- ○ Motor ○ Language ○ Adaptive ○ Personal-social Combined overall score is developmental quotient (DQ) The Development of Intelligence

17 Tests of Infant Intelligence  Bayley Scales of Infant Development: Three components- ○ Mental scale ○ Motor scale ○ Infant behavior profile Diagnoses developmental delays Overall scores do not correlate highly with IQ scores obtained later in childhood The Development of Intelligence

18 Tests of Infant Intelligence  Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence: Increasingly being used Focuses on infant’s ability to process information Obtains similar results cross-culturally Correlated with measures of intelligence in older children The Development of Intelligence

19 Stability and Change in Intelligence through Adolescence  Group scores remain stable: Strong relation between IQ scores obtained at ages 6, 8, and 9 and IQ scores obtained at 10. Correlation between IQ in preadolescent years and 18 still statistically significant.  Individual scores vary more: Children are adaptive IQ scores fluctuate dramatically in childhood The Development of Intelligence

20 Intelligence in Adulthood  Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: Crystallized intelligence- ○ Accumulated information and verbal skills, which increase with age. Fluid intelligence- ○ Ability to reason abstractly, which steadily declines from middle adulthood on. The Development of Intelligence

21 Fluid and Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span The Development of Intelligence

22 Longitudinal Changes in Six Intellectual Abilities The Development of Intelligence

23 Cognitive Functioning Cognitive Mechanics:  Hardware of the mind  Speed and accuracy of processes involved in sensory input, attention, memory, organizing, and discrimination  Strong influence of biology and heredity  Declines with age Cognitive Pragmatics:  Culture-based software of the mind  Skills include: Reading and writing skills Language comprehension Educational qualifications Professional skills Knowledge about self and life skills  Can improve with aging The Development of Intelligence

24 Mental Retardation  Condition of limited mental ability: Low IQ on traditional test of intelligence Difficulty adapting to everyday life Onset of characteristics by age 18 Range of impairments vary The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

25 Giftedness  Above-average intelligence; IQ averaged 150 on Stanford-Binet- Precocity March to their own drummer Passion to master  Intelligence and creativity not same thing; most creative people are quite intelligent but reverse not necessarily true The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

26 Creative Thinking The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity Divergent thinking Convergent thinking Creativity Produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity Gives one correct answer; is characteristic of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests Ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems

27 Creative Thinkers Characteristics:  Flexibility and playful thinking Brainstorming  Inner motivation  Willingness to risk  Objective evaluation of work Changes in Adulthood:  Individuals’ most creative products were generated in their thirties  80% of most important creative contributions completed by age 50  Researchers found creativity often peaks in forties before declining  Age of decline varies by domain The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

28 Living a More Creative Life  Try to be surprised by something every day  Try to surprise at least one person every day  Write down the surprises of each day  Follow sparked interests  Wake up in the morning with a specific goal  Take charge of your schedule  Spend time in stimulating settings The Extremes of Intelligence and Creativity

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