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I. What is intelligence? chapter 7. Defining intelligence Intelligence The ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act.

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Presentation on theme: "I. What is intelligence? chapter 7. Defining intelligence Intelligence The ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. What is intelligence? chapter 7

2 Defining intelligence Intelligence The ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment [p238] chapter 7

3 Psychometrics  The traditional approach to intelligence that measures mental abilities, traits, and processes [p238] Aptitude tests attempt to measure potential for success in a given area Achievement tests measure the skills and knowledge one already has chapter 7

4 Sources of bias Validity: The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Validity: The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Cultural bias: Favoring one cultural group over another Cultural bias: Favoring one cultural group over another

5 Raven progressive matrices

6 Can IQ tests be culture free? [p ] Culture-fair tests attempt to be culturally non- biased Culture affects a person’s... Attitude toward exams Comfort in settings required for testing Motivation Rapport with test provider Competitiveness Ease of independent problem solving chapter 7

7 Expectations and IQ Scores are affected by expectations for performance Expectations are shaped by stereotypes Stereotype threat Burden of doubt one feels about his/her performance due to negative stereotypes about his/her group [p241] chapter 7

8 Beliefs about intelligence [p249] Asian parents, teachers, and students are more likely to believe that math ability comes from studying. Americans are more likely to believe that math ability is innate. American parents tend to have lower academic standards for kids. American parents tend to have lower academic standards for kids. American children tend to value education less. American children tend to value education less. chapter 7

9 A brief history of intelligence tests

10 Sir Francis Galton Hand Dynamometer Hand Dynamometer

11 The invention of intelligence tests Alfred Binet: First intelligence test (1904) measured memory, vocabulary, and perceptual discrimination. Mental Age (MA): an individual’s level of mental development relative to others [p239] chapter 7

12 William Stern and IQ (1912) Mental age was divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to get an intelligence quotient. [p239] Now IQ scores are derived from norms provided for standardized intelligence tests.

13 Current Interpretation of IQ scores [p239] IQ scores distributed normally Bell-shaped curve Very high and very low scores are rare. 68% of people have IQ scores between 85 and % between 55 and 145 chapter 7

14 Extremes of intelligence Mental retardation: IQ below 70 and difficulty adapting to everyday life Mental retardation: IQ below 70 and difficulty adapting to everyday life Giftedness: IQ of 120 or higher and/or superior talent in one or more areas Giftedness: IQ of 120 or higher and/or superior talent in one or more areas

15 The use and misuse of intelligence tests

16 Alfred Binet (1904) The French school board used the results of the test to identify weak areas and offer extra help The French school board used the results of the test to identify weak areas and offer extra help The US later used the test to categorize people in school and in the military The US later used the test to categorize people in school and in the military

17 Arthur Jensen (1969) Heredity influences intelligence by 80% Heredity influences intelligence by 80% People should breed for intelligence People should breed for intelligence

18 AKA: Nobel prize sperm bank AKA: Nobel prize sperm bank Repository for germinal choice ( )

19 Environment can raise IQ Programs like Head Start Programs like Head Start Motivation level determines success Motivation level determines success

20 Environmental factors associated with low IQ [p247] Poor prenatal care Poor prenatal care Malnutrition Malnutrition Exposure to toxins Exposure to toxins Stressful family circumstances Stressful family circumstances

21 The Environment and IQ Statistics indicate that scores on IQ tests have been increasing rapidly worldwide, perhaps due to an increase in: Statistics indicate that scores on IQ tests have been increasing rapidly worldwide, perhaps due to an increase in: –availability of information –exposure to information –access to education

22 IQ test scores… …are currently the best indicator we have for how someone will perform in school …are currently the best indicator we have for how someone will perform in school

23 Limitations of Intelligence Tests Their effectiveness depends on the skill of the test giver Their effectiveness depends on the skill of the test giver They are best used in conjunction with other information about the individual They are best used in conjunction with other information about the individual

24 Limitations of Intelligence Tests Scores can lead to: Scores can lead to: StereotypingStereotyping LabelingLabeling Expectations of abilityExpectations of ability

25 IV. The Cognitive Approach: Multiple intelligences

26 How many uses can you think of for a newspaper?

27 Creativity The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Creative productivity depends on many factors: Creative productivity depends on many factors: –Level of motivation –Personality –Intelligence –Training –Mentoring –Good luck

28 Emotional intelligence The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions. [p243] Appears to be biologically based chapter 7

29 Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory chapter 7 Body smarts Body smarts Space smarts Space smarts Music smarts Music smarts Word smarts Word smarts Number smarts Number smarts Self smarts Self smarts People smarts People smarts Nature smarts Nature smarts

30 Each of Howard Gardner’s types of intelligences… …relies on cognitive skills that can be destroyed by brain damage …relies on cognitive skills that can be destroyed by brain damage …can show up in gifted people or in people with mental retardation …can show up in gifted people or in people with mental retardation

31 Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory [pp ] Componential (analytic) Comparing, analyzing, and evaluating This type of process correlates best with IQ Experiential (creative) Inventing solution to new problems Transfer skills to new situations Contextual (practical) Applying the things you know to everyday contexts chapter 7

32 Evaluating the multiple intelligences approaches They encourage us to think more broadly about what intelligence is They encourage us to think more broadly about what intelligence is They have motivated educators to provide instruction in different domains They have motivated educators to provide instruction in different domains They may not address all areas of intelligence They may not address all areas of intelligence They lack empirical evidence They lack empirical evidence


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