Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Field Research (outside of lab) Naturalistic observation: in natural setting Archival research: preexisting records Case study: single."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 Field Research (outside of lab) Naturalistic observation: in natural setting Archival research: preexisting records Case study: single group or person Surveys: asking direct questions Program evaluation: conducting evaluations of applied procedures Field experiments: causal inferences Low High constraint
Field Research Generalizability: extent to which results from a study based on a sample apply to the population as a whole - “real world” (External Validity) Nonrepresentative sample: not accurately reflecting the characteristics of the population from which the sample was drawn + -
observations Unobtrusive: no contact with subject Participant observer: Contact with the subject Archival data naturalisticcase study
Archival Research - Historical accounts - census data - court records - Police crime reports - medical records Have to have research question Purely descriptive
Field Research: More Examples Naturalistic observation Theory of Evolution Natural Selection Archival research: preexisting records Ex: Schizophrenia & Meds & sleep Case study: single group or person Freud & Anna O. Charles Darwin British Naturalist 1809 -1882 I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection. —Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species"
Hawthorne Effect (Mayo, 1927-1932: Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939) A bias in subject’s behavior – usually an improvement in performance - that results from special treatment and interest shown by the experimenter Hawthorne Electric – AT&T Measure productivity -Illumination of room -Hours worked -# of rest periods If not unobtrusive Measurement Reactivity
Observational Research Study the subject in their natural environment – Nonhuman inventory of the behaviors of a species behaviors thoroughly described and organized into categories enables animal behaviorists to accurately measure behavior "behavior scan" method: "scan" at regular, brief intervals results: frequency of behavior (graph) or time budgets Ethogram
Other Types of Field Research Very important to Psych Program evaluation: conducting evaluations of applied procedures Surveys: asking direct questions Field experiments: causal inferences
Reasons for doing Field Research – Field Experiments Basic vs Applied: test external validity of experiment done in lab to determine the effects of events in the field to improve GENERALIZATION across setting participants in study to larger population results of the study over time setting to setting
Survey Research – in the field Survey: one or several questions that ask people about their attitudes, beliefs, health, work, income life satisfaction, political views etc….any issue can be surveyed Mostly used in the social sciences (social psych) ….sounds easy..just whip up some questions..
Survey Research – in the field -Identify content area -Construct your survey instrument -Define population -Draw representative sample -Administer the survey Administration of survey mailInterviewquestionnaire In person or tellyGroup or single
Survey Research – in the field 2 parts to survey: -Demographics (factual items) -Content Questions 1. Open ended 2. Multiple choice 3. Likert scale (continuum) Construction of questions
Likert Scale for Children Do you think time-out is a good thing?
Survey Research – in the field Sampling procedures: -Non probability -probability 1.Convenience Sampling: Getting the first subjects available Ex. Exiting polls 2.Quota: Convenience sample to represents subgroups proportionate to the real population 3.Snowball: locate each subject from previous contact with previous subject 1. Simple: randomly select subjects from list of population 2. Systematic: select every nth name form the list of population 3. Stratified: randomly select from subgroup (strata), proportionate to each group’s representation in the population
Survey Research – in the field Research Designs: Cross-sectional design (one shot deal): compares responses of people of different ages at one time – survey is only administered one time to each participant – comparisons are made across age groups to investigate age related changes in behavior/attitudes etc. Longitudinal design (long-term): participants are studied over time on the same DV – follow up tests – within subjects design - How does the subject change over time
Surveys Status: Used to describe a current characteristic of a population How long will you live???? Take Life Expectancy Survey