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Chapter 2: The Research Process. The Research Process Chapter Objectives –To define the scientific process, including the positivist and qualitative approaches.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: The Research Process. The Research Process Chapter Objectives –To define the scientific process, including the positivist and qualitative approaches."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: The Research Process

2 The Research Process Chapter Objectives –To define the scientific process, including the positivist and qualitative approaches to inquiry –To review issues in research design, including sampling, research methods, and designs for studying development –To consider the ethical guidelines for conducting research with human participants

3 The Research Process The Scientific Process –The Positivist Approach to Research Seeks causal relationships among factors, with the goal of predicting outcomes –The Qualitative Inquiry Approach to Research Seeks to understand the meanings, motives, and believes that underlie a person’s experiences

4 The Research Process Figure 2.1 The Scientific Process

5 The Research Process The Positivist Approach to Research –A scientific observation should be Objective Repeatable Systematic

6 The Research Process The Qualitative Inquiry Approach to Research –Assumes that there are many versions of truth, depending on the informant and the context –The world is ripe for discovery –Theory emerges from the data, rather than guiding the methodology and data collection –Emphasis is on interpretation

7 The Research Process Research Design: Sampling –Sampling - method of choosing participants who will be included in the study –Population - the large group to which the findings of the research are intended to apply –Generalizability - extent to which we can say with confidence that the observations made for this sample would apply to others groups

8 The Research Process Methods Of Sampling –Random Samples - each person in a given population has an equal chance –Stratified Sampling - deliberately selected from a variety of levels (strata) or subgroups within the population –Matched Groups - 2 or more groups who are similar on many dimensions –Volunteer Sampling - participants are chosen from among those who volunteer –The Qualitative Approach to Sampling - learn as much as possible

9 The Research Process Research Methods –Observation: taking note of events and trying to make sense of them –Naturalistic Observation: research in which behavior in a setting is carefully observed without any other kinds of manipulation –Participant Observation: researcher actively engages in interactions with other members of a setting –Correlation Statistical analysis of strength and direction Correlation coefficient

10 The Research Process Figure 2.2 Patterns Reflecting Positive, Negative, and Zero Correlations

11 The Research Process Case Study –An in-depth description of a single person, family, social group, or social setting Interviews –Surveys and Tests –Reliable: results are consistent –Valid: when they measure what they claim to measure

12 The Research Process Experimentation –Independent Variable - predictors –Dependent Variable - outcome –Experimental Group - receives manipulation –Control Group - receives no treatment

13 The Research Process Designs for Studying Development –Retrospective Studies - report on experiences from past –Cross-sectional Studies - compares different groups of individuals –Longitudinal Studies - studies individuals overtime –Cohort Sequential Studies - compares different groups of individuals and tracks them over time

14 The Research Process Figure 2.3 The Cohort Sequential Design

15 The Research Process

16 Ethics in Research on Humans Special Ethical Guidelines - principals of conduct Integrity of Research Lies with the Investigator Evaluating the Risks-Versus-Benefits Ratio Protection from Harm The Ethical Principle of Informed Consent Debriefing


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