Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1What is Research
2 ObjectivesDescribe the process of psychological research and scientific methodName the different types of psychological research
3 Pre-Research Decisions 1. Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis.2. Look for evidenceSample- the small group of participants, out of the total population that psychologist study.Must be representative of the population
4 SampleRandom Sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being representedStudying shoppers- select every 10th shopper that walks byStratified Sample- all subgroups in the population are representedSchool population– 45% Girls 55% Boys- this has to be represented in the sample
5 Methods of ResearchGoals of Research – Describe, Explain, Predict and Influence BehaviorResearchers need to know how people and animals behave naturally ex. Jane GoodallNaturalistic Observation- observing the subject in its natural setting without interfering.Try to be as unobtrusive as possible, otherwise you may alter the subjects behavior.
6 Research Methods Case Studies- intense study of a person or group Combine long-term studies with diaries, tests, and interviews.Ex. Piaget studied his own children's cognitive development
7 Research MethodsSurveys- asking many individuals a fixed set of questionsUsed to gather data on the attitudes, beliefs and experiences of large numbers of people.Interviews, questionnaires or a combinationInterviews allow the researcher to observe the participant and modify questionsQuestionnaires take less time and the answers are more uniform
8 Research Methods Longitudinal Studies Studies the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of time.To see in their beliefs/feelings have changedCross-SectionalGroups studied on the basis of ageTested, surveyed or observedFaster and less expensive than longitudinal
9 Research Methods Correlations and Explanations The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of dataPositive Correlation- Data moves in the same directionIQ and Grades: The higher the IQ the Higher the Grade, The lower the IQ the lower the GradeNegative Correlation- Data moves in different directionsDays absent and Grade: absences go up grade goes down, absences go down grade goes up.
10 Experiments Allow the investigator to control the situation Variables- conditions and behaviors that are subject to changeIndependent Variable- the one experimenters change so they can observe its effectsDependent Variable- changes in relation to the Independent variable.
11 ExperimentsExperimental Group - Participants who are exposed to the independent variableControl Group- Participants who are treated the same as the exp group but not exposed to the independent variableNecessary in all experiments
12 Ethical IssuesEthics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behaviorSee list on p40-41