Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1What is Research
2ObjectivesDescribe the process of psychological research and scientific methodName the different types of psychological research
3Pre-Research Decisions 1. Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis.2. Look for evidenceSample- the small group of participants, out of the total population that psychologist study.Must be representative of the population
4SampleRandom Sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being representedStudying shoppers- select every 10th shopper that walks byStratified Sample- all subgroups in the population are representedSchool population– 45% Girls 55% Boys- this has to be represented in the sample
5Methods of ResearchGoals of Research – Describe, Explain, Predict and Influence BehaviorResearchers need to know how people and animals behave naturally ex. Jane GoodallNaturalistic Observation- observing the subject in its natural setting without interfering.Try to be as unobtrusive as possible, otherwise you may alter the subjects behavior.
6Research Methods Case Studies- intense study of a person or group Combine long-term studies with diaries, tests, and interviews.Ex. Piaget studied his own children's cognitive development
7Research MethodsSurveys- asking many individuals a fixed set of questionsUsed to gather data on the attitudes, beliefs and experiences of large numbers of people.Interviews, questionnaires or a combinationInterviews allow the researcher to observe the participant and modify questionsQuestionnaires take less time and the answers are more uniform
8Research Methods Longitudinal Studies Studies the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of time.To see in their beliefs/feelings have changedCross-SectionalGroups studied on the basis of ageTested, surveyed or observedFaster and less expensive than longitudinal
9Research Methods Correlations and Explanations The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of dataPositive Correlation- Data moves in the same directionIQ and Grades: The higher the IQ the Higher the Grade, The lower the IQ the lower the GradeNegative Correlation- Data moves in different directionsDays absent and Grade: absences go up grade goes down, absences go down grade goes up.
10Experiments Allow the investigator to control the situation Variables- conditions and behaviors that are subject to changeIndependent Variable- the one experimenters change so they can observe its effectsDependent Variable- changes in relation to the Independent variable.
11ExperimentsExperimental Group - Participants who are exposed to the independent variableControl Group- Participants who are treated the same as the exp group but not exposed to the independent variableNecessary in all experiments
12Ethical IssuesEthics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behaviorSee list on p40-41