Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1 What is Research.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1 What is Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1 What is Research

2 Objectives Describe the process of psychological research and scientific method Describe the process of psychological research and scientific method Name the different types of psychological research Name the different types of psychological research

3 Pre-Research Decisions 1. Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis. 1. Ask a specific question about a limited topic or hypothesis. 2. Look for evidence 2. Look for evidence  Sample- the small group of participants, out of the total population that psychologist study.  Must be representative of the population

4 Sample Random Sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being represented Random Sample- everyone in the population has an equal chance of being represented  Studying shoppers- select every 10 th shopper that walks by Stratified Sample- all subgroups in the population are represented Stratified Sample- all subgroups in the population are represented  School population– 45% Girls 55% Boys- this has to be represented in the sample

5 Methods of Research Goals of Research – Describe, Explain, Predict and Influence Behavior Goals of Research – Describe, Explain, Predict and Influence Behavior Researchers need to know how people and animals behave naturally ex. Jane Goodall Researchers need to know how people and animals behave naturally ex. Jane Goodall  Naturalistic Observation- observing the subject in its natural setting without interfering.  Try to be as unobtrusive as possible, otherwise you may alter the subjects behavior.

6 Research Methods Case Studies- intense study of a person or group Case Studies- intense study of a person or group  Combine long-term studies with diaries, tests, and interviews.  Ex. Piaget studied his own children's cognitive development

7 Research Methods Surveys- asking many individuals a fixed set of questions Surveys- asking many individuals a fixed set of questions  Used to gather data on the attitudes, beliefs and experiences of large numbers of people.  Interviews, questionnaires or a combination  Interviews allow the researcher to observe the participant and modify questions  Questionnaires take less time and the answers are more uniform

8 Research Methods Longitudinal Studies Longitudinal Studies  Studies the same group of people at regular intervals over a period of time.  To see in their beliefs/feelings have changed Cross-Sectional  Groups studied on the basis of age  Tested, surveyed or observed  Faster and less expensive than longitudinal

9 Research Methods Correlations and Explanations Correlations and Explanations  The measure of a relationship between two variables or sets of data  Positive Correlation- Data moves in the same direction  IQ and Grades: The higher the IQ the Higher the Grade, The lower the IQ the lower the Grade  Negative Correlation- Data moves in different directions  Days absent and Grade: absences go up grade goes down, absences go down grade goes up.

10 Experiments Allow the investigator to control the situation Allow the investigator to control the situation Variables- conditions and behaviors that are subject to change Variables- conditions and behaviors that are subject to change  Independent Variable- the one experimenters change so they can observe its effects  Dependent Variable- changes in relation to the Independent variable.

11 Experiments Experimental Group - Participants who are exposed to the independent variable Experimental Group - Participants who are exposed to the independent variable Control Group- Participants who are treated the same as the exp group but not exposed to the independent variable Control Group- Participants who are treated the same as the exp group but not exposed to the independent variable  Necessary in all experiments

12 Ethical Issues Ethics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behavior Ethics- the methods of conduct or standards, for proper and responsible behavior  See list on p40-41


Download ppt "Chapter 2 Psychological Research Methods and Statistics Section 1 What is Research."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google