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Determining the Etiology of Wounds: Pressure Versus Vascular Presented by Jeri Ann Lundgren, RN, BSN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Pathway Health Services.

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Presentation on theme: "Determining the Etiology of Wounds: Pressure Versus Vascular Presented by Jeri Ann Lundgren, RN, BSN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Pathway Health Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Determining the Etiology of Wounds: Pressure Versus Vascular Presented by Jeri Ann Lundgren, RN, BSN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Pathway Health Services

2 Training Objectives Describe etiologies of Pressure Ulcers Discuss the pressure versus other causes of wounds Demonstrate how to determine vascular wounds from pressure ulcers

3 Pressure Ulcers A pressure ulcer is localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction Copyright: NPUAP 2007

4 Pressure Ulcers

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6 Contributing Factors: Shear

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8 Contributing factors: Friction

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10 Lower Extremity Wounds  Arterial Insufficiency  Venous Insufficiency  Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic

11 Arterial Insufficiency

12  Extremity becomes pale/pallor with elevation and has dependent rubor  Skin: shiny, taut, thin, dry, hair loss of lower extremities, atrophy of subcutaneous tissue  Increased pain with activity and/or elevation (intermittent claudication, resting, nocturnal and positional)

13 Arterial Insufficiency  Perfusion –Skin Temperature: Cold/decreased –Capillary Refill Delayed – more than 3 seconds –Peripheral Pulses Absent or Diminished

14 Arterial Insufficiency Tests  Ankle Brachial Index (Doppler) < 0.8  Systolic Toe Pressure (Doppler) TP < 30  Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure Measurements (TcPo 2 ) TcPo 2 < 40 mm Hg

15 Arterial Insufficiency Ulcers  Location Toe tips and/or web spaces Phalangeal heads around lateral malleolus Areas exposed to pressure or repetitive trauma (shoe, cast, brace, etc.)

16 Arterial Insufficiency

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18 Venous Insufficiency

19  Lower Leg characteristics –Edema Pitting or non-pitting –Venous Dermatitis (erythema, scaling, edema and weeping) –Hemosiderin Staining Brown staining (hyperpigmentation) –Active Cellulitis

20 Venous Insufficiency  Pain Minimal unless infected or desiccated  Peripheral Pulses Present/palpable  Capillary Refill Normal-less than 3 seconds

21 Venous Insufficiency Ulcers  Location –Medial aspect of the lower leg and ankle –Superior to medial malleolus

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23 Venous Insufficiency

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25 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic  History Diabetes Spinal cord injury Hypertension Smoking Alcoholism Hansen’s Disease Trauma to lower extremity Family history ***Please note that there are over 100 known causes

26 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic  Relief of pain with ambulation  Parasthesia of extremities  Altered gait  Orthopedic deformities  Reflexes diminished  Altered sensation (numbness, prickling, tingling)

27 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic  Intolerance to touch (e.g., bed sheets touching legs)  Presence of calluses  Fissures/cracks, especially the heels Arterial insufficiency commonly co-exists with peripheral neuropathy!

28 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic  Light pressure using a Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Exam  Vibratory sense using a tuning fork  Deep tendon reflexes of ankle and knee  Recommend an ABI as arterial insufficiency commonly co-exists

29 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic  Plantar aspect of the foot  Metatarsal heads  Heels  Altered pressure points  Sites of painless trauma and/or repetitive stress

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31 Peripheral Neuropathy/Diabetic

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33 Moisture-Not Pressure

34 Intertrigo

35 Wounds NOT Caused by Pressure

36 Resources Available Resources and Web Sites: –www.wocn.org (Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nurse Society) –www.ahrq.gov (Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, formally AHCPR) –www.aawm.org (American Academy of Wound Management) –www.npuap.org (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel) –www.woundsource.com (Great source to find wound care products)

37 Thanks for your participation!!! Jeri Lundgren, RN, BSN, PHN, CWS, CWCN Pathway Health Services Cell: This material was prepared by Stratis Health, the Quality Improvement Organization for Minnesota, under a contract with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The contents presented do not necessarily reflect CMS policy. 10SOW-MN-C


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