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Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Foot Care Chapter 32 Keith Bowering, John Embil
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association EDUCATE about proper foot care EXAMINE for structural, vascular, neuropathy problems DO a 10 gram monofilament assessment IDENTIFY those at high risk of foot ulcers and educate, assess more frequently, consider footwear REFER ulcers to multidisciplinary team specialized in foot care 2013 Foot Care Checklist
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Public Health Agency of Canada (August 2011); using 2008/09 data from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (Public Health Agency of Canada). Patients with DM are 20X More Likely to be Hospitalized for Non-traumatic Limb Amputation
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Prevention through education Proper risk assessment Early and aggressive treatment
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Educate Patients on Proper Foot Care – The DOs DO … Check your feet every day for cuts, cracks, bruises, blisters, sores, infections, unusual markings Use a mirror to see the bottom of your feet if you can not lift them up Check the colour of your legs & feet – seek help if there is swelling, warmth or redness Wash and dry your feet every day, especially between the toes Apply a good skin lotion every day on your heels and soles. Wipe off excess Change your socks every day Trim your nails straight across Clean a cut or scratch with mild soap and water and cover with dry dressing Wear good supportive shoes or professionally fitted shoes with low heels (under 5cm) Buy shoes in the late afternoon since your feet swell by then Avoid extreme cold and heat (including the sun) See a foot care specialist if you need advice or treatment
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Educate Patients on Proper Foot Care – The DONTs DO NOT … Cut your own corns or callouses Treat your own in-growing toenails or slivers with a razor or scissors. See your doctor or foot care specialist Use over-the-counter medications to treat corns and warts Apply heat with a hot water bottle or electric blanket – may cause burns unknowingly Soak your feet Take very hot baths Use lotion between your toes Walk barefoot inside or outside Wear tight socks, garter or elastics or knee highs Wear over-the-counter insoles – may cause blisters if not right for your feet Sit for long periods of time Smoke
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Structural Abnormalities Peripheral Arterial Assessment Skin changes Evidence of infection Callous or ulcer Range of motion Charcot foot Temperature Skin changes Ankle Brachial Index Neuropathy Assessment 10 gram monofilament How to Perform Proper Foot Examination
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Rapid Screening for Diabetic Neuropathy Using 10 gram Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament Loss of sensation over the distal plantar surface to the 10g monofilament is a significant and independent predictor of foot ulceration and lower-extremity amputation.
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Who is at High Risk of Developing a Foot Ulcer? Peripheral neuropathy – Monofilament sensation loss Previous ulceration or amputation Structural deformity or limited joint mobility Peripheral arterial disease Microvascular complications Elevated A1C Onychomycosis
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Foot ulcer present High risk for ulcer Refer to multidisciplinary team with expertise in foot ulcers More frequent E.g. Every 3-6 months Low Risk Annually When Should a Foot Exam be Performed?
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association High risk for ulcer Foot care education Professionally-fitted footwear Prompt referral to multidisciplinary team with expertise in foot ulcers If ulcer develops High Risk for Ulcer: Prevention and Early Treatment
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Local factors Systemic factors Wound care Pressure offloading Debridement (nonischemic wounds) Glycemic control Treat infection Address lower-extremity vascular status Foot Ulcer: Multidisciplinary Team Approach
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association 1.In people with diabetes, foot examinations by healthcare providers should be an integral component of diabetes management to identify persons at risk for ulceration and lower-extremity amputation [Grade C, Level 3] and should be performed at least annually and at more frequent intervals in those at high risk [Grade D, Level 4] Recommendation 1
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 1 (continued) 1.Assessment by healthcare providers should include the assessment of skin changes, structural abnormalities (e.g., range of motion of ankles and toe joints, callus pattern, bony deformities), skin temperature, evaluation for neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, ulcerations and evidence of infection [Grade D, Level 4]
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 2 2.People at high risk of foot ulceration and amputation should receive foot care education (including counseling to avoid foot trauma), professionally-fitted footwear, and early referrals to a healthcare professional trained in foot care management if foot complications occur [Grade B, Level 2]
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 3 3.Individuals who develop a foot ulcer should be managed by a multidisciplinary healthcare team with expertise in the management of foot ulcers to prevent recurrent foot ulcers and amputation [Grade C, Level 3]
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 4 4.There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend any specific dressing type for diabetic foot ulcers [Grade C, Level 3]. General principles of wound management involve the provision of a moist wound environment, debridement of nonviable tissue (nonischemic wounds) and offloading of pressure areas [Grade B, Level 3] 2013
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association Recommendation 5 5.Evidence is currently lacking to support the routine use of adjunctive wound- healing therapies such as topical growth factors, granulocyte-colony stimulating factors, dermal substitutes, or HBOT in diabetic foot ulcers but they may be considered in nonhealing, nonischemic wounds when all other options have been exhausted [Grade D, Level 4] 2013
guidelines.diabetes.ca | BANTING ( ) | diabetes.ca Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association CDA Clinical Practice Guidelines – for professionals BANTING ( ) – for patients
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