Presentation on theme: "Chemical,biological, physical substance used to control : Insects Plant pathogens Weeds Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined pesticide."— Presentation transcript:
Chemical,biological, physical substance used to control : Insects Plant pathogens Weeds Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined pesticide as “any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animal s….”
G ROSS CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDE BY CHEMISTRY Inorganic : Heavy metal_lread Copper product Sulfar product Organic: May be chains or ring Biological: Viruses, bacteria, fungi and plant Nematodes,insects and other parasites
P ESTICIDES ’ T YPES : type herbicides insecticide fungicide miticide Rodenticide nematocd mollusicicide
W HERE A RE P ESTICIDES U SED Forests to control insects and under-story vegetation; Rights-of-way along railroads and under electric wires to control vegetation; Houses, schools, commercial and office buildings to control insects, rodents, and fungi; Aquatic sites to control mosquitoes and weeds Food preparation areas to control insects and rodents Household pets to control fleas and ticks Livestock to control insects and other pests
P ESTICIDE A PPLICATIONS : Manual Spray tractor SprayerAerial
C ONTROL Israel is not allowing the necessary equipments used to check the leftover of pesticides in vegetables to enter to Gaza Strip. The pesticides which remains without checking are causing serious health effects to people. This is a slow and silent murder to Palestinians. Of course, the absentee of the necessary equipments would open the door widely in front of Israel to export various types of pesticides without knowing how far and long it remains and or affect.
P ESTICIDES ’ H EALTHY A FFECTS Insect, rodents and humans have similar nervous, circulatory, and respiratory system so pesticide can effect people too. HAZARD depends on: Toxicity : the capacity of pesticide cause injury. Exposure :the risk of a pesticide contacting or entering the body.
P ESTICIDES ’ H EALTHY A FFECTS Poisoning effect: Contact Systemic Allergic Routs of entry Skin Lungs Eyes Oral
P ESTICIDES ’ H EALTHY A FFECTS Common medical conditions : Mild: Upper respiratory tract infection\influenza. Food-born illness Asthma Plant-induced irritant or allergic dermatitis. Sever: Cerebrovoscalare accident Psychinat
P ESTICIDES ’ E NVIRONMENTAL A FFECTS How do pesticides effect the environment : Point – source pollution: Include" Includes pesticide spills, wash water from cleanup sites, leaks from storage sites, and improper disposal of pesticides and their containers. Nonpoint-Source Pollution Includes the drift of pesticides through the air, pesticide run -off into waterways, pesticide movement into ground water,
P ESTICIDES ’ E NVIRONMENTAL A FFECTS Environmentally-Sensitive Areas Ground water Wells,sinkhole Areas near surface water(lake,oceac..) areas heavily populated with people areas populated with livestock and pets areas near food crops and ornamental plants
E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT OF P ESTICIDES ON A IR The atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle Pesticides enter the atmosphere through drift, wind erosion and evaporation Pesticides can move great distances in the atmosphere Pesticides reach the earth’s surface via dry deposition and precipitation
Hazards of atmospheric pesticides to humans and environment: Source of exposure to pesticides through inhalati Source of contamination of surface waters and ground water through dry deposition and precipitation Transport of pesticides from application sites to sensitive areas Accumulation of pesticides in the environment (soil, wildlife, etc
E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT OF P ESTICIDES ON S OIL Pesticides can move in the environment via the soil by two methods: erosion and leaching Erosion: soil particles which are transported by wind and water; pesticides attached to soil particles Leaching: downward movement of pesticides in the soil through cracks and pores
Environmental Impact of Pesticides in Soil leaching: Soil normally filters water as it moves downward, removing contaminants such as pesticide Soil and pesticide properties, geography and weather can influence the movement of pesticides Pesticides that leach through soils may reach ground water
E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT OF P ESTICIDES ON S OIL Organic matter soil texture soil acidity adsorption persistence rate of application application method geography weather Soil properties that affect leaching:
E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT OF P ESTICIDES ON G ROUND W ATER Pesticides also found in non- agricultural setting such as golf courses and residential areas High pesticide usage in the area High recharge of ground water by precipitation or irrigation High soil permeability Well contamination is greatest in shallow, inadequately sealed wells Factors strongly associated with pesticide contamination of ground water are:
E NVIRONMENTAL I MPACT OF P ESTICIDES ON S URFACE W ATERS : Pesticides enter surface waters through run-off, wastewater discharges, atmospheric deposition (dry and precipitation), spills and ground water Pesticide concentrations in surface waters follow the seasonal patterns of pesticide application and run-off
B IOLOGICAL CONTROL : It is the use of one living organism to control another. It is a reduction of pest population by animes and typically involve an active human role. Biological control agent: Include predators, parasitoid and pathogens. Biological control seldom means complete eradication of the unwanted organism,but rather maintaining its population at a lower than average population density than would occur in the absence of the biological control agent
P ESTICIDES FRIENDLY TO HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT There is a type of bacteria called "bacillus thuringiensis" was discovered. A single cell and occurs naturally in the soil has the ability to annihilation of certain types of insects. Observed on this type it: intensity of specialization for certain types of insects does not affect the animal or human completely safe for the environment leads to the protection of plants
G ENERAL PROCEDURES FOR THE SAFETY OF WORKERS AND TO PREVENT THE RISK OF PESTICIDES Protective equipment (clothing, hats, glasses...) Data written on the packaging label of the pesticide during and after spraying: Avoid spraying against the wind and not Tzleckha blow when clogged When exposed skin and clothing, and eyes to the spray solution must wash them well with soap and water and wash the part that exposure to a pesticide alcohol
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