Presentation on theme: "1 Pesticides Sherry L. Glick Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. EPA 702-784-8276"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pesticides Sherry L. Glick Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. EPA 702-784-8276 Glick.firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest Not just insecticides and “pesticides” Herbicides Fungicides Various other substances used to control pests Under U.S. law, any substance/mixture of substances for use as Plant regulator Defoliant Desiccant What is a Pesticide?
3 More than 1055 registered active ingredients Formulated into thousands of pesticide products How many pesticides are there?
4 Living organisms occurring where not wanted or Cause damage to crops, humans, other animals Examples Insects Mice and other animals Unwanted plants (weeds) Fungi Microorganisms (e.g, bacteria, viruses) What are “pests”?
5 Short answer: EVERYWHERE Agricultural: increase food supply/quality/quantity Residential: Inside & garden/landscaping Schools Hospitals Right of ways Where are pesticides used?
6 Cockroach sprays and baits Insect repellents for personal use Rat and other rodent poisons Flea and tick sprays, powders, pet collars Kitchen, laundry, and bath disinfectants and sanitizers Products that kill mold and mildew Some lawn and garden products (e.g., weed killers) Some swimming pool chemicals Household Examples of Pesticides
8 Pesticides also classified by category Chemical pesticides Antimicrobials Biologicals Types of Pesticides (cont.)
9 Many types Control insects Familiar types include Termiticide (controls termites) Larvaecide (includes mosquito-larvae control) Insecticides
10 Mostly used in agriculture Example: EPA has registered microbial fungicide to control Aspergillus flavus fungus, common to Cottonseed Corn Peanuts Other crops grown under stressful conditions such as drought Fungicides
11 Derived from such natural materials (e.g., animals, plants, bacteria, certain minerals) For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications, are considered biopesticides Three major classes Microbial Plant Incorporated Protectants Biochemical Biopesticides
12 Most pesticides pose risks to Humans Animals Environment Designed to kill or otherwise adversely affect living organisms Also useful to society, can kill potential disease-causing organisms and control insects, weeds, and other pests Balancing Risks & Benefits of Pesticides
13 Biologically-based pesticides, such as pheromones and microbial pesticides, increasingly popular, often safer than traditional chemical pesticides EPA registering increasing number of reduced- risk conventional pesticides Are some pesticides safer than others?
14 Worker exposure: worker protection Diet exposure: primary mechanism for organophosphates Underground and surface water: leaching and runoff Certain behaviors and activities: children hand/mouth Possible Pesticide Exposure Pathways
15 Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological effects or toxicity Degradation products Chemical fate and transport (how it behaves, where it goes) in soil, air, and water EPA scientists estimate exposure of different animals to pesticide residues in environment Finally, they integrate toxicity information with exposure data to determine ecological risk to environment and wildlife Pesticides’ Effects on the Ecosystem
16 In evaluating a pesticide, EPA estimates combined risk from sources such as Food Drinking water Residential environment Pesticides & Human Health
17 Cumulative risk: EPA evaluate pesticides with a common mechanism of toxicity EPA developing methodology Special sensitivity of children to pesticides 10-Fold Safety Net Pesticides & Human Health (cont.)
18 Carcinogen Endocrine disruptor Neurotoxin Skin/eye irritation Possible Health Effects of Pesticides
19 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Pesticide Registration Improvement Act (PRIA) Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Endangered Species Act (ESA) Laws that Govern Pesticide Regulation
20 EPA and states (usually State Dept. of Agriculture) register or license pesticides for use in U.S. In addition, anyone planning to import pesticides for use in U.S. must notify EPA EPA receives authority to register pesticides under Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) What is EPA’s role?
21 Office of Pesticide Programs with Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) work with 10 Regional Offices and other EPA program offices on a wide range of pesticide issues and topics Evaluate potential new pesticides and uses Provide special local needs and emergency situations Review safety of older pesticides Register pesticide producing establishments Enforce pesticide requirements Pesticide field programs EPA’s Role (cont.)
22 Outreach on Read the Label Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program School IPM Initiative Strategic Agriculture Initiative EPA Promotes Pesticide Risk Reduction