2 PESTICIDE CALCULATIONS Determine the amount of product neededFormulated Product vs Active Ingredient
3 Formulations and Active Ingredient Dry formulations will report their active ingredient as a % by weightFor example the label for Thalonil states that it is a 90 DF productTherefore the active ingredient is 90% by weight of the containerIf the container weighs 5 lbs then .9 x 5 = 4.5 lbs of active ingredient
4 Formulations and Active Ingredient Liquid formulations will report their active ingredient in lbs active ingredient per gallon and as % by weightFor example the label for Illoxan states that it is a 3 EC formulationThis means that there is 3 lbs of active ingredient per gallonIf the container size is 5 gallons then one would have 5 x 3 = 15 lbs of active ingredient
5 Formulations and Active Ingredient For example Diuron 4L is a liquid formulationIts % active ingredient is 40%. To get the amount of active ingredient in a gallon one would have to multiply .40 by the weight of 1 gallon of this materialSince weight may not be given refer to the lbs A.I. / gallon statement
6 FORMULATED PRODUCTThe Label Contains Information On The Amount of Product Needed Under the “Directions For Use” Section
7 How much Aliette would you need to make up 450 gallons if you plan to use the lowest possible rate?
8 ANSWER Set up a proportion as follows and solve for x 2.5 lbs 100 gallonsx____450 gallons=Label Rate(100) x (X) = (2.5) x (450)X = (2.5) x (450)100X = 1125100X = lbs of Aliette
9 ACTIVE INGREDIENTIf you want to solve for the amount of active ingredient (A.I.) or if you are given the application rate in lbs A.I. then use one of the following formulas.DRY MATERIAL(% A.I. As a Decimal) (Form. Product) = lbs of A.I.LIQUID MATERIALlbs A.I = lbs A.I. Neededgallon formulated prod.
10 PRACTICE PROBLEMIf a 7.5 G insecticide is recommended at a rate of 4.5 lbs A.I./A,determine how much of the formulated product is needed to treat4 acres?Use this formula:(% A.I.) x (lbs of Formulated Product) = lbs of A.I.(.075) x (X) = 4.5 lbs A.I.X =.075% A.I. needs to beexpressed as a decimalX = 60 lbs of product per acreRemember you have to treat 4 acres therefore multiply 60 x 4to get 240 lbs of insecticide for the 4 acre area.
11 PRACTICE PROBLEMA 13,300 sq. ft. area needs to be treated with Daconil 4F.How much Daconil 4F will be needed if you want to apply3.5 lbs A.I.per acre.Use the following formula for a liquid formulation:4 lbs A.I.1 gallon3.5 lbs A.I.X=You need to treata 13,300 sq. ft. areaSolve for X :(4) x (X) = (1) (3.5)X =4X = gallons of Daconil 4F is needed per acre13,30043,560.305 ofan acre=(.88 gallons) X (.305 acre) =.27 gallons of Daconil 4F willbe needed.
12 ACTIVE INGREDIENT PERCENT CALCULATIONS DRY If you want to make up a % spray solution then the followingformulas can be used. One is for a dry formulation and the otheris for a liquid formulationPERCENT CALCULATIONSDRY(Gallons Spray) (% Spray) (8.3) % A.I. of PesticideLIQUID (Gallons Spray) (% Spray) (8.3) (lbs A.I. /Gallon) (100)8.3 is aconstant andrepresents theweight of 1gallon ofwater
13 PRACTICE PROBLEMYou want to make up a 1.7% spray of Roundup 4 L. You havea 250 gallon sprayer which you plan to fill. How much Roundupwill be needed? How much water will be needed?Use this formula to solve the problem :( % Spray ) ( Spray Volume) ( 8.3)( lbs A.I./gallon) ( 100 )Amount of water needed =( 1.7 ) ( 250 ) ( 8.3)( 4 ) ( 100 )=[ ] = gallonsof water and 8.82 gallons ofRoundup will be addedto give 250 gallons of spray3527.5400=8.82 gallons of Roundup 4 L will be needed
14 PRACTICE PROBLEMYou want to make up a .75% spray solution of Dursban 50 WP.How much Dursban will be needed if you want to make up a 30gallons?Use This Formula :( % Spray) ( Gallons of Spray ) ( 8.3 )(% A.I.)(.75 ) ( 30 ) ( 8.3 )50=Note: When using thepercent mix formulasthe % spray and % A.I.Values are not enteredas decimals186.7550==3.7 lbs of Dursban 50 WP
15 PRACTICE PROBLEMS1. If a 2.5G insecticide is applied at the rate of 3 lbs. A.I./A,how much of the formulated product is needed to treat5 acres?Answer: 120 lbs/A and 600 lbs for 5 acres.2. A 26,500 sq. ft area needs to be treated. The recommendedapplication much of the formulated rate is 1.8 lbs A.I./A.The pesticide is formulated as a 2 EC. How much of theformulated material will be needed to treat this site?Answer: .55 gallon or 70 oz
16 PRACTICE PROBLEMS3. A 1.7% spray of Weedbgone 4L is required for excellent weed control. How much Weedbgone will be needed to treat a 2 acre field? Assume that you want to mix the product in water and apply the mixture at 1 gallon per 1,000 sq. ft.Answer: 3.1 gallons4.A fungicide, Nopatho 50 WP, is recommended at a 2 oz per1,000 sq. ft. rate on the label. How much Nopatho fungicideis needed to treat 1.75 acres?Answer: 9.5 lbs
18 CALIBRATION The process by which one determines the application rate (gallons per acre or poundsper acre) of equipment under a given setof conditions.
19 APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Multipurpose Sprayers : Hand Held Units, Airblast Sprayers, and Spray BoomsBroadcast Applicators for Granular FormulationsBand or Row Applicators for Granular FormulationsSoil Fumigation EquipmentInjection and Implantation Equipment for TreesGreenhouse Applicators Can Range From Mists, Dusters, Drenches, to Foliar Spray Applicators
20 APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Each Commodity Has a Separate Write Up in the Commodity ManualsAgricultural Manual : 10-15Ornamental and Turf Manual: Nursery and Landscape: Turf : Greenhouse: 51
21 WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CALIBRATE? Damage was due to poor nozzle distribution.
22 Sprayer nozzles set too low thus causing a streaking effect.
23 SPRAYER CALIBRATIONFOUR VARIABLES THAT ONE CAN ADJUST TO GOVERN SPRAY OUTPUT ARE :1) NOZZLE TYPE2) NOZZLE SPACING3) SPRAYER SPEED4) SPRAYER PRESSURE
24 CONSIDERATIONS IN NOZZLE SELECTION Spray Product Catalogs Will Provide Important Information In Nozzle SelectionNozzle ConstructionNozzle PatternNozzle Spacing And Height Above GroundNozzleScreen Which Is Placed BeforeNozzle to Prevent Plugging of Nozzle
26 CATALOG INFORMATION & INTERPRETATION 65 DegreeNozzle80 DegreeNozzleTable Interpretation: For nozzle model SS ithas the following characteristics : It is a 65 degree nozzleand can be used between 30 and 60 psi. If used at 50 psiit’s output would be .07 gallons per minute (GPM).Also at a 20 inch spacing and travelingat 5 MPH the application rate would be 4.5 gallons peracre (GPA).110 DegreeNozzleScreenMeshSize
27 PRODUCT CATALOG INTERPRETATION Based on the previous slide answer the following questions:1. What would be the GPM of nozzle model 8001-SS if usedat 40 psi?Answer: .1 GPM2. If this nozzle is placed at a 20 inch spacing and a sprayertravels at 6 MPH what will its GPA be?Answer : 5.0 GPA
28 CATALOG INFORMATIONThe height of the nozzle above the spray boom is important so asto ensure uniform application. The table below shows therecommended height for different spray nozzles spaced at 20” to 40”.NOZZLE HEIGHTSPRAYANGLE20”SpacingNOZZLE TYPE30”Spacing40”Spacing
29 NOZZLE CONSTRUCTION Brass Polymer Stainless Steel Hardened Stainless SteelCeramicNozzles will wear differently based on their construction .Refer to the following slide on wear differences.
30 Brass nozzles wear much quicker than other types of nozzles. The ceramic nozzle wears the least.
31 This Sprayer Distribution Pattern Shows Good Coverage Across The Boom
32 This Spray Pattern Shows Worn Nozzles ; Greater Spray Under Each Tip Will Occur
33 NOZZLE PATTERN Not every nozzle is created equal ! ! MAJOR TYPES )Standard Flat Fan )Extended-Range Flat Fan )Even Flat Fan )Twin Flat Fan )Flooding Fan Nozzles )Full Cone )Hollow Cone
34 FLAT FAN NOZZLE Jack of all trades Operating Pressure : 30 - 60 psi Available in 65 , 80, and 110 degree anglesOverlapping is required for uniform applicationA preferred nozzle for herbicide application
35 EXTENDED-RANGE FLAT FAN NOZZLE Similar to Flat Fan but with wider pressure range psi.
36 EVEN - FLAT FAN NOZZLE Applies uniform amount across its spray width Used in band applicationsPressure requirement of psi and available in 40 or 60 degree spray angles
37 TWIN-FLAT FAN NOZZLENozzle will have two openings ; 60 degree separationIncreases penetration into crop canopy30 to 60 psi
38 FULL CONE NOZZLEBest for pre-plant incorporated herbicides at the psi range. Low pressure and large droplet size will reduce driftThis cone nozzle is used for high volume applications40 inch spacing and nozzles need to be angled at 30 to 45 degrees from vertical to increase uniformity
39 HOLLOW CONE NOZZLEBest suited for Postemergence herbicides. Can also do well for placement of insecticides, etc.Fits well into low volume applicationsDrop nozzle applications / psi
40 FLOODING FAN NOZZLE “FLOODJET” Create a wide deflector type flat spray patternLarger orifice reduces clogging10-40 psi range / 40” spacing
41 SPRAYER SPEED Inverse relationship between speed and application rate As speed increases application rate decreasesTo determine mph use the following formula : MPH = Distance Traveled (ft) x Time (sec.) x 88
42 SAMPLE PROBLEMDetermine the mph if a sprayer travels 130 ft. in 40 seconds.MPH = x x 88MPH = 7800/3520 = 2.2 mph
43 CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES There are numerous methods used in calibrating sprayers. Several different techniques and formulas will be discussed in class
45 CALIBRATION: Method 1 Measure off known area Fill sprayer with water to set levelSpray known area noting pressure and speed settingsDetermine volume usedSet up an equality to solve for your application rate
46 CALIBRATION: Method 1 Assume area measured off is 50 feet by 60 feet 50 x 60 = 3000 sq ft.The volume used was 4 gallons then the equalityis as follows …4 gallons = x gallons3,000 sq. ft ,560 sq. ftX = 58 gallons per acre (GPA)
47 CALIBRATION FORMULAS : Method 2 GPA = x GPM ( of nozzle)MPH x NW (nozzle spacingin inches)GPA = x GPM ( of sprayer)MPH x BW ( boom width in feet)Conversion Factors
48 CALIBRATIONWhile the sprayer is running determine the nozzle output or boom output by collecting the spray and measuring the volume.
49 SAMPLE PROBLEM Determine the GPA of a sprayer if given the following information. The nozzle out put averages .25 GPM and theyare spaced at 30 inches. The sprayer will travel at 6 MPH.Using this formula one can solve for GPA :GPA = x GPMMPH x NWGPA = 5940 x .256 x 30GPA = 8.25
50 SAMPLE PROBLEM Determine the GPA of a sprayer given the following information :The sprayer has 8 nozzles and each nozzle averages .5 GPM.The boom width is 12 feet and will be traveling at 4 MPH.GPM is for the entire sprayer(8 nozzles). Therefore multiply 8times .5 to get the sprayer out put of4 GPMGPA = 495 x GPMMPH x BWGPA = 495 x 44 x 12GPA = 41.3 or round off to 41
54 DRY BROADCAST APPLICATION Measure a Known AreaWeigh Product Before One Treats the Area and Note Spreader SettingReweigh After ApplicationSetup Equality
55 DRY BROADCAST APPLICATION How much Insecto 5G will be applied per acre based on the following informationSpreader Setting LArea for calibration is 50 ft by 80 ft : 80x50 = 4,000 sq. ft.Amount of Insecto 5G placed in spreader was 90 lbsArea is treated and Insecto 5G is reweighed at 85 lbs. Difference = 5 lbsSet equality : 5 lbs = x , ,560Solve for x : (4000) (x) = (5) x (43560)X = 54.5 lbs will be applied per acre
56 COMPUTERIZATION Sprayer Control Systems Adjust Pressure and Speed to Deliver Desirable GPA RatesPictures From Teejet Web Page