16MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE BOOM HEIGHTRule-of-thumb when using 80 degree tipsSet the boom above the target by whatever the distance is between nozzlesIf nozzle spacing is 20" then set boom 20" above target
17MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE NOZZLESNozzle typesFlat fan is best for broadcast application of herbicidesFlat fanEven fan
21MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE Nozzle placementNeed to be placed for proper overlap. Flat fan nozzles should overlap 30%.
22MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE Nozzle uniformityNozzle types and orifice sizes must be the same across the boom
23MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE Nozzle orientationDirected straight down toward the ground and angled 5 to 10 degrees from parallel to the boom to prevent collision of spray droplets from adjacent patterns
24MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE Nozzle materialsStainless steel, brass and plastic are the most common.Stainless steel is probably the best choice
26MAXIMIZING SPRAYER PERFORMANCE Screens and filtersUse appropriate screens and filters0.2 GPM or more use 50 meshLess than 0.2 GPM use 100 mesh
27CALIBRATION OF SPRAYERS Sprayer calibration consists of three major steps:Ensure a uniform discharge from each nozzle tipDocument the sprayer output in GPADetermine the amount of pesticide to add to the spray tank
28CALIBRATION OF SPRAYERS Items needed for calibrationMeasuring tapeStop watchCollection tubeFlags or markersMEASURE NOZZLE OUTPUT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
29CALIBRATION OF SPRAYERS Ensuring uniform flow from all nozzlesDetermine best operating speed to suit field conditions.Select proper nozzle.Make sure nozzles deliver in desired rate range.Remove and clean all nozzle tips and screens.
30CALIBRATION OF SPRAYERS Use clean water and flush sprayer system.Replace all screens and tips. Make sure all nozzles are the same.Check flow from each nozzle. Do this daily.Adjust pressure.
31Need to replace any nozzle that sprays less than 20 - 1 = 19 oz. Allowing a + or - 5% variation from a new nozzle which of the following 8002 nozzles should be replaced?NozzleFlow Rate (oz/min at 40 psi)120 (new nozzle)220.5320.1422519.6620718820.1920.41026.15% of 20 is 20 x 0.05 = 1 ozNeed to replace any nozzle that sprays less than = 19 oz.Need to replace any nozzle that sprays more than = 21 oz.Replace nozzles 4, 7 and 10.
32STEP 2. DETERMINE SPRAYER OUTPUT IN GALLONS PER ACRE 1. Field acres vs. treated acres (band)a) Field acres = Crop acresb) Treated acres = amount of land sprayedWhen banding only a portion of the total crop receives the spray.Calibration is based on the actual treated acres.
332. Gallons per acre applied depends on: 1) orifice size of nozzle tip2) pressure of liquid at the tip3) speed nozzle tip is moved across the field4) the viscosity of the liquid being sprayed
34THE REFILL METHOD OF CALIBRATION Broadcast Application1. Fill spray tank with water2. Adjust pressure within recommended range for nozzles used.3. Select easily maintained speed that fits field conditions.4. Spray a measured area. Need to know sprayed swath width (ssw) not boom length.
35ssw = noz spacing (ft) x # of noz Example: A boom has 18 nozzles spaced 20 in. apart.ssw = (20 / 12) x 18 = 30 ftMeasure off an area to equal 1/10 of an acre.30 ft x X ft = 43,560 ft/a / 10X = 4356 / 30 = ftTherefore, measure off an area 30 ft by ft and this will = 1/10 acre.
365. Return to filling point. 6. Measure amount of water to refill tank.7. Calculate spray rate with this formula:gpa = gallons sprayed x 43,560 ft2/a swath width x swath length (ft)
37Example: A field sprayer with a 30 ft spray swath is sprayed for a distance of ft. 4 gallons of water are needed to refill the tank. What is the spray rate?gpa = 4 gal sprayed x 43,560 / 30 x = 40 gpa
38Band Application 1. Fill spray tank with water 2. Adjust pressure 3. Select speed4. Measure band width (ft) and multiply by number of bands treated at one time
395. Spray a measured distance in field 6. Return to filling point 7. Measure amount of water to refill tank8. Calculate spray rate on the band with this formula:gpa = gallons used x 43,560 ft2/a treated width x distance (ft)
40A 100 gallon tank can treat 100 / 18.2 = 5.5 acres of bands. Example: A 6-row planter sprays a 12 inch band centered over 36 inch rows. It is sprayed for 300 ft and uses 0.75 gallon of water. What is the spray rate?treated width = 12 x 6 / 12 = 6 ftgpa = 0.75 gal x 43,560 ft2 / 6 ft x 300 ft = 18.2 gpaA 100 gallon tank can treat 100 / 18.2 = 5.5 acres of bands.
41However, actual field coverage is equal to: FAT = TAT x ROW / BANDFAT = Field acres/tankTAT = Treated acres/tankROW = Row spacing (in)BAND= Band width (in)FAT = 5.5 x 36 / 12 = 16.5 acres
42STEP 3. Adding the proper amount of pesticide to the tank 1. Divide the capacity of the tank by the gallons applied per treated acre to find the treated acres per tank of spray.2. To determine how much chemical to add to the tank, multiply the recommended formulated rate per acre by the number of treated acres the tank will cover.
433. Field acres represent the normal reference to field size 3. Field acres represent the normal reference to field size. In broadcast spraying field acres/tank and treated acres/tank are the same. When banding, treated acres/tank will always be less than field acres per tank.BROADCAST: FAT = TATBAND: FAT = TAT x ROW BANDWhere: FAT = Field acres/tankTAT = Treated acres/tankROW = Row spacing, inchesBAND= Band width, inches
44EXAMPLE: 200 gallon tank, 10 gallon/acre, 36 inch row, 12 inch band, 2 EXAMPLE: 200 gallon tank, 10 gallon/acre, 36 inch row, 12 inch band, 2.5 lbs/acre of AAtrex 80W.Step gal / 10 gpa = 20 TATStep lb/a x 20 TAT = 50 lb/TankStep 3. FAT = 20 x 36 / 12 = 60 FAT
45EXAMPLE: 300 gallon tank, 40 gallon/acre, 0.5 qt/acre of Banvel. Step gal / 40 gpa = 7.5 TATStep qt/a x 7.5 TAT = 3.75 qt/TankWHAT IF YOU ONLY WANT TO TREAT 5.2 ACRES?5.2 a x 40 gpa = 208 gallons5.2 a x 0.5 qt = 2.6 qt
46WHAT IF YOU HAVE 35 GALLONS LEFT IN THE SPRAY TANK AND YOU WANT TO TREAT 4 ACRES? 40 gal will cover 1 acre therefore, 35 gal / 40 gpa = acres4 a a = acres3.125 a x 40 gpa = 125 gallons of water3.125 a x 0.5 qt = 1.56 qt or 50 oz of Banvel
47WHAT IF PESTICIDE RATES ARE LISTED IN TERMS OF POUNDS OF ACTIVE INGREDIENT PER ACRE? Example: You are told to apply 2 lb ai/a of 2,4-D. 2,4-D has 4 lb ai/gal. How many quarts of 2,4-D will you need to apply per acre?chem needed = rate (lb ai/a) / chem conc.2 lb ai / 4 lb ai = 0.5 gal or 0.5 x 4 = 2 qt/a 2,4-D
48Example: You need to apply 0. 5 lb ai/a of an 80% WP Example: You need to apply 0.5 lb ai/a of an 80% WP. How many pounds of product will you need to apply per acre?chem needed = rate (lb ai/a) / chem conc.0.5 lb ai / 0.80 ai = lb/a
491/128 Method Of Calibration Calibrating Hand Sprayers And High Pressure Hand Guns Because a gallon = 128 ounces and the area to be sprayed is 1/128 of an acre, ounces collected = gallons per acre.Calibration is knowing how much spray solution is going on a known area.The one one hundred twenty eighth method is probably the easiest method of calibration to understand. There are other methods that work just as well and if you are comfortable with them by all means use them.This method works because you are putting one ounce on 1/128 of an acre. This is the same as putting one gallon on one acre. However, it isn’t usually practical to spray an entire acre with small hand held equipment. We use 1/128 of an acre because it is a small area and application equipment can quickly and accurately be calibrated.When you collect the output in ounces it equals gallons per acre.
50STEP 1Measure out an area equal to 1/128th of an acre. Approximately 340 sq. ft. or an area 18.5 by 18.5 ft.18.5 ft18.5 ft
51STEP 1Measure out an area equal to 1/128th of an acre. Approximately 340 sq. ft. or an area 10 by 34 ft.10 ft34 ft
52STEP 1Measure out an area equal to 1/128th of an acre. Approximately 340 sq. ft. or an area 1.5 by 228 ft.1.5 ft228 ft
53STEP 2Measure the time it takes to spray the measured area. Repeat several times and take the average time.
54STEP 3Spray into a container for the same amount of time it took to spray the measured area. Measure the water collected, in ounces. The amount collected in ounces equals gallons per acre.
55EXAMPLE Step 1. Measure area. 18.5 by 18.5 ft = 340 sq ft HAND SPRAYERStep 1. Measure area by 18.5 ft = 340 sq ftStep 2. Time to spray = 51 secondsStep 3. Amount collected = 40 ouncesTherefore; 40 ounces = 40 GPA
56DETERMINING HOW MUCH PESTICIDE TO ADD TO THE SPRAY MIXTURE Recommendation is to apply 1 quart of 2,4-D per acre
57The sprayer is applying 40 gallons per acre The sprayer is applying 40 gallons per acre. Therefore; you will need to add 1 quart of 2,4-D to each 40 gallons of water.Your sprayer only holds 1 gallon of spray mixture. So how much pesticide will you need to add to the gallon of water?
581 quart or 32 ounces divided by 40 gallons means that each gallon of water contains 0.8 ounces of 2,4-D1 fluid ounce = 2 tablespoons. Therefore; you will need ~ 2 tablespoons of 2,4-D per gallon of water.
591 fluid ounce = 30 (cc) or (ml) 1 fluid ounce = 30 (cc) or (ml). Therefore; if measuring in cc you would need 0.8 ounces X 30 cc/ounce = 24 cc per gallon of water.A plastic syringe is an easy and accurate way to measure liquid pesticides.
60How large of an area will 1 gallon spray. There are 43,560 ft2/acre How large of an area will 1 gallon spray? There are 43,560 ft2/acre. If 40 gallons will spray one acre then one gallon will spray an area 1/40 that size.43,560 ft= 1089 ft2
611/128 Method Of Calibration MULTIPLE NOZZLE BOOM-TYPE SPRAYERSThis method of sprayer calibration gives sprayer output in gallons per acre when nozzle discharge is measured in ounces over a course length that = 1/128th of an acre or 340 ft2The 1/128 method also works for large self propelled spray equipment.
62STEP 1Adjust the sprayer pressure and check for uniformity. Operate the sprayer for 1 minute and measure spray from each nozzle. Clean or replace any nozzle that delivers + or - 5% than the output from a new nozzle in good condition.
63STEP 2Measure the spray band width or nozzle spacing in inches on the boom to determine the course length.The area to be sprayed must equal 1/128th of an acre or 340 ft2If the nozzle spacing = 20" then the distance to travel would be 204 ft.
6420" (1.67 ft) X 204 ft = 340 ft2204 ft1.67 ft340 ft2 or 1/128 of an acre
65STEP 3Catch the spray from ONE nozzle while operating the sprayer under field conditions or for the time required to travel the needed distance at a desired speed.
66STEP 4Measure the spray collected in ounces. The number of ounces collected is the same as the number of gallons per acre.
67EXAMPLEYou have a sprayer that has 15 nozzles on a 30 inch spacing. How would you calibrate it using the 1/128th method?
68STEP 1Make sure sprayer is adjusted properly and nozzles are in good working order.
69STEP 2Measure nozzle spacing in inches on the boom to determine the course length.Using the formula:4084 / 30 inches = 136 feetOr from Table 1. W = 30 inches and D = 136 feet
70Table 1. Distance (D) to travel and seconds required for selected speeds when nozzle coverage is (W) inches.W (in)D (ft)2 mph3 mph2020470 seconds46 seconds241705839261575436281465033301364631
71STEP 3Time how long it takes to travel the 136 ft at a desired speed. Travel this distance several times and get an average time.Perhaps it takes an average of 31 seconds to travel the 136 feet.
72STEP 4Collect the spray from ONE nozzle in a container for 31 seconds.Measure the water collected in ounces.The amount collected in ounces equals gallons per acre.If in 31 seconds you collected 20 ounces your sprayer output would be 20 gallons per acre.
73DETERMINING HOW MUCH PESTICIDE TO ADD TO THE SPRAY MIXTURE The recommendation from the label is to apply 1 quart of 2,4-D per acre.
74The sprayer is applying 20 gallons per acre. Therefore; you will need to add 1 quart of 2,4-D to each 20 gallons of water.
75Your sprayer holds 200 gallons Your sprayer holds 200 gallons. So how much pesticide will you need to add to the 200 gallon spray tank?200 gallons divided by 1 qt 2,4-D per 20 gallons water = 10 quarts of 2,4-D per tank
76How large an area can be sprayed by your 200 gallon tank? 200 gallons divided by 20 gallons per acre = 10 acres
78CALIBRATING GRANULAR APPLICATORS 1. Adjust orifice and fill hopper.2. Operate the unit in the field to be treated and collect the granules as the unit is operating.3. Weigh the amount of chemical delivered.
794. Calculate the area treated. band width x number of rows x lengthor row spacing x number of rows x lengthor swath width x length5. lb of granules/a =[43,560 x lbs of granules collected] divided by [the area of the measured course in ft2]
806. The above steps may have to be repeated until the desired amount is delivered. Example: A granular applicator treats a swath width of 20 ft and is driven over a distance of ft. The unit delivers 0.7 lb. What amount of granules are being applied per acre?43,560 x 0.7 / 4356 = 7 lb/aYou want the unit to deliver 100 lbs of product per acre. What needs to be done?
81Unit should deliver:[100 lbs x 4356 ft2] / 43,560 ft2 = 10 lbs in the measured course.Adjust the orifice until 10 lbs are collected per 4356 ft2.
82FACTORS AFFECTING GRANULAR APPLICATORS 1. Exposed area of the metering orifice2. Speed of the agitator3. Ground speed of the applicator4. Nature and size of the granules5. Roughness of the field6. Humidity and temperatureWhen any of the above factors change the applicator should be recalibrated.
84Percent concentration by weight: SOLUTIONS AS PERCENT OR PPMPercent concentration by weight:lbs to use = [% by wt x gal final mix x 8.34] divided by [% strength of chem to be used]Example: How much WP containing 40% ai should be added to a 250 gallon tank if the recommended treatment is 0.25% by weight?[ x 250 x 8.34]/0.4 = 13 lbs
85Percent concentration by volume: gal to use = % by vol x gal final mixExample: When using Ally it is suggested you add a surfactant at 0.25% by volume. How much surfactant should be added to a 300 gallon spray solution?x 300 = 0.75 gallons or 3 quarts
86Parts per million (ppm): Wettable Powder (dry material) lbs to use = [ppm desired x gal final mix x 8.34] divided by [1 million x % strength of chem used]Example: How much WP containing 40% ai should be added to a 100 gallon tank if the recommended treatment is 1200 ppm?1200 x 100 x 8.34 / 1 mil x 0.4 = 2.5 lbs
87Parts per million: Liquid gal to use = [ppm desired x gal final mix x 8.34] divided by [1 million x lbs ai/gal]Example: How much liquid EC containing lbs of ai/gal should be added to a 100 gallon tank if the recommended treatment calls for 300 ppm ai of a liquid chemical?300 x 100 x 8.34 / 1 mil x = 0.4 gallons
88SUMMARYFind a calibration method you understand and use it every time.
89Exams with calibration problems on them Ag pest control-weed & insects (901 A & B)Chemigation (901 F)Forest pest control (902)Ornamental & turf-weeds (903 A)Aquatic pest control (905)Right-of-way pest control (906)Industrial, institutional, structural & health related pest control (907)Regulatory pest control (909)Demonstration & research pest control (910)Aerial (912)