Presentation on theme: "Path to the American Revolution By J.A.SACCO. Mercantilism What is mercantilism? Why was mercantilism implemented? Advantages to mercantilism To gain."— Presentation transcript:
Mercantilism What is mercantilism? Why was mercantilism implemented? Advantages to mercantilism To gain economic control over colonies For a nation to become self-sufficient A steady market of raw materials from colonies Use the colonies to purchase excess products Charles II
Mercantilism Disadvantages of Mercantilism on Colonies Restricted colonies to whom they could buy/sell Prevented colonies from buying and selling with other nations to get a better price Problem- What happened if the colonies produced something that England did not want?
Triangular Trade Triangular trade allowed the colonies to conduct its own trade without British supervision!
England the Colonies and Mercantilism How did the British restrict colonial trade to achieve mercantilism? Navigation Acts (1660) Enacted by Charles II- Exports>Imports All Exports/Imports to colonies carried on English vessels. Why did the British do this? How did this hurt the colonies? Certain “enumerated” goods (tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, lumber) sent only to England or English colonies. How did this hurt the colonies?
England the Colonies and Mercantilism Staple Act (1663) All colonial imports must go through English port (pay duty) then ship out again on English ship. Why did the English pass this act? How did the colonies avoid the Navigation Acts?
England Gets Tough on the Colonies! Problem- English government can’t prevent smuggling into colonies. Result? Dominion of New England
Dominion of New England New England seen as center of smuggling problem 1684- Charles II makes N.E. a royal colony 1685- James II establishes the Dominion of New England N. England, Conn, RI, NY, NJ charters revoked. Become royal colonies!
Dominion of New England Dominion run by gov.general/councilors app’t by king Dominion had power to make laws, tax, administer justice, confirm/deny existing land grants Colonial assemblies abolished Sir Edmund Andros
Caused greater tension in colonies Declared previous land titles worthless/had to pay annual fee for new title Puritan Church not recognized- all marriages had to be performed in Anglican church Puritan meeting halls must be made available for Anglican services No one to teach school without government permission This was a way to punish the colonies for violating the Navigation Acts.
Period of Transition /Glorious Revolution Rejected advice of Parliament Insisted on divine right to rule Openly practiced Catholicism Prosecuted Anglican bishops for defying his wishes on church appointments James II has son- will raise him Catholic James II- 1688
The Glorious Revolution 1688 What affect did James II have on England and the colonies? James abdicates thrown William and Mary obey laws of Parliament. William and Mary English Bill of Rights, King must have Parliament’s consent for taxes and raise and army
Glorious Revolution and the Colonies Andros overthrown Dominion of New England ended Right to elect assembly Assembly can elect the gov’t councilors Colonial Governor appointed by King Voters must own property What affect does the Glorious Revolution have on the colonies? PositivesNegatives
“Two Treatises on Government” (1689) People born with natural rights Gov’t created by the people to ensure those rights And if gov’t violates that agreement-people have the right to overthrow that gov’t Basis of colonial protest in Revolution! John Locke
Period of Salutary Neglect (1689-1713) What is the significance of the Period of Salutary Neglect? Why did the British take their attention away from the colonies?
Period of Salutary Neglect (1689-1713) America KKing William’s War (1689-1697) QQueen Anne’s War (1702-1713) KKing George’s War (1744-1748 Europe WWar of the League of Augsburg WWar of the Spanish Succession WWar of the Austrian Succession British involved in wars of empire. Effect on Colonies? Wars kept England occupied with European affairs allowed the colonies to develop on own with very little interference from Britain. Colonies get a taste of independence.
British Regain Control? Early 1700’s Britain try to regain control over colonies with new acts and enforce the old ones. MMolasses Act (1733) – put tax on sugar/molasses imported from non-British ports (Fr./Dutch West Indies). WWoolens Act (1699)– could not trade goods outside of own colony HHat Act (1732) – could not sell hats and felts outside colony in which it was made IIron Act (1750) - forbade the manufacture of the finished articles of iron. Acts poorly enforced.
French and Indian War (1756-1763) Last ‘war of empire” Determined European supremacy in North America