Presentation on theme: "British Economic Policy Towards Colonial America Mercantilism Defined: a countries goal is self sufficiency and that all countries were in a competition."— Presentation transcript:
British Economic Policy Towards Colonial America Mercantilism Defined: a countries goal is self sufficiency and that all countries were in a competition to acquire the most gold and silver
Importance of Trade British eager to catch up to the magnificence of Dutch trading. Parliament established a goal prevent the colonies from trading with the Dutch.
Acts of Parliament: Navigation Act (I) 1660 All goods shipped into British territory had to be carried in ships of British manufacture with British masters and crews that were 75% British. Colonial Governors had to pledge an oath that they would enforce the act. Enumerated goods: those that had to be sent to a British port (Sugar, Rice, Tobacco, Indigo) and couldn’t be sent abroad.
Acts of Parliament: Staple Act 1663 Any goods sent from Europe to the Colonies had to first go to a British port…unloaded by a British crew, paid a due, reloaded by a British crew, shipped to its destination by a British crew of at least 75% on a British ship.
Acts of Parliament: Plantation Duty Act 1663 Enumerated goods were subject to an immediate duty at its point of departure. This was designed to ensure a profit in the likelihood of smuggling.
Acts of Parliament: Navigation Act (II) 1696 The previous navigation act would be enforced throughout the king’s dominion by special courts in the colonies. No longer would they be tried by colonial courts and judges who were sympathetic to smuggling.
Minor Acts of Parliament Wool Act of 1699: No wool to the colonies Hat Act of 1732: No hats to be exported from colonies Molasses Act: no importation of non-British molasses allowed. Iron Act of 1750: forbade building of Iron mills
Overall effects of the trade laws Devastated Chesapeake—limited free trade of tobacco Brought substantial profits to the British New England impacted far less as their goods weren’t often enumerated
Early revolt In some instances trade customs officials were killed as in Maryland. They were heavily harrassed in Massachusetts. Sewing the seeds of Revolution
Political Ramifications In 1660 there was only one colony directly ruled by the King—Va. Slowly but surely they will come under royal control—even Pennyslvania. Massachusetts had its charter revoked in 1684 for vioilating trade agreements Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Connecticut followed the year later. By 1685 there were only 3 colonies left under their own control!
Dominion of New England Combined New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut into one new government. Ruled by a governor and council appointed by the crown. Hated governor Edmund Andros
Political changes: English Politics King James: the catholic king has a son who he announces will be raised in that faith. Parliament is outraged invites his daughter and son-in-law to rule in his place. James flees to France without violence. Parliament assumes more authority over England. Revolution throughout colonies
Impact in Colonies Religious freedoms Overthrow of Andros regime Leisler’s Rebellion Revolution against Lord Baltimore in Md. Salutary Neglect by English
Salutary Neglect: 1690-1755 As long as the goods flowed into Britain Parliament was not going to supervise the colonies closely. Largely left colonies alone. During this time they developed independently of English. Upon reasserting their will during the French and Indian War, colonial discontent soared.
Timeline 1660-1685: execution of Mercantilist Policies 1685: revocation of colonial charters in NE 1688: Glorious Revolution 1690-1755: Emergence of Salutary Neglect 1755: Re-emergence of British economic policies in colonies designed to raise revenue 1773-1781: American Revolution
Colonist reassert control of its governments Colonial legislatures pay salaries of officials Appoint judges Colonial laws and legislatures