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Lean, Mean, Conquering Machine Chapter 14. In this presentation you will learn:  the classes of soldier  the length of service for a soldier  the pay.

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Presentation on theme: "Lean, Mean, Conquering Machine Chapter 14. In this presentation you will learn:  the classes of soldier  the length of service for a soldier  the pay."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lean, Mean, Conquering Machine Chapter 14

2 In this presentation you will learn:  the classes of soldier  the length of service for a soldier  the pay of a soldier  the organization of the army  the officers/commanders of the army  the equipment used by a soldier  the tactics of the army  special forces Focus

3  Originally based on what the could bring so the wealthier you were the higher your ‘rank’  Senators were leaders  Equites were the wealthiest who could provide a horse and constituted the cavalry  1 st heavy infantry (the best armed)  2 nd heavy infantry (no breastplate)  3 rd lightly armed (spears and javelins)  4 th lightly armed (spears and javelins)  5 th armed with stones/slingshots  Each of the above classes had  seniores: veterans (aged 47-60)  iuniores: rookies (aged 17-46)  Proletarii: the poorest citizens excused from service Classes

4 in 390BC we go to Maniples not classes  hastii: the youngest troops  principes: middle aged; prime fighting age  triarii: oldest  rorarii: the old 4 th class (spears/javelins)  velites: the poorest with weapons but no armor Marius changed it again  he liked cohorts and armed everyone with a sword and pilum (spear) so that the velites were no more and the differences amongst the hastii, principes and triarii dwindled as well.  this also meant a shift from a citizen army to a professional one. Change of Classes

5  originally men served the length of a campaign season (the non farming months)  as times changed so did the length of service (16-25 years)  after Marius 20+ years was not uncommon  Praetorian Guards served less time (12-16 years)  Auxiliaries served between 25-30 years Duration

6  First earnings were nothing and soldiers paid for their food, clothing and equipment  After 390BC, soldiers received a stipend (daily cash)  the stipend ranged from ½ to 1 ½ denarii depending on rank with food deducted from the pay  By the 50’s BC the stipend was seen more as an allowance and was fixed at 112.5 denarii a year for legionaries with food deducted from it  Julius Caesar doubled pay to 225 denarii  Augustus increased the pay of centurions to 3750-15,000 denarii  Domitian increased the pay for legionaries to 300 denarii  Domitian increased the pay for the Praetorian Guard to 1000 denarii  Domitian increased the pay for centurions to 5,000 – 20,000 denarii  Soldiers could also expect to “earn” money from booty captured in war  Soldiers might be given a ‘bonus’ for their loyalty from Caesar onward  Soldiers could also expect gifts of land on retirement Pay

7 The divisions of the army changed but here is the now thought of standard by the time of Julius Caesar *the first cohort was ‘doubled’ and consisted of 5 centuries or 800 men  In addition each century had a leader called a centurion (59-60)  Plus there was the cavalry of about 120 men  Thus a legion had around 5300 men contubernia8 men who shared a tent and a mule century10 contubernia (80 men) cohort6 centuries (480 men) legion9 regular cohorts + the first cohort (5120 men) Organization

8 tesserariusdaily password imaginifercarried the image of the emperor signifercarried the legion’s standards (flags) aquilifer:the eagle standard (very prestigious) optiorear officer (second in command to the centurion) centurioncommanded the centuries; trained the men primus piluscenturion of the first cohort praefectus castorum camp prefect/leader of the camp tribunesselected the centurions; 5 were Equestrian legatusoverall commander of the legion appointed by the emperor magister equitumassistant to the dictator dictatora commander of chief appointed in times of emergency emperor/kingcommander in chief during their respective eras Officers


10 caligaehobnail boots galeahelmet with cheek and neck guards lorica hamatashirt of chain mail lorica segmenta“plate armor” overlapping pieces of iron lorica squamata“scale armor” overlapping scales of iron or bronze resembling pugiodagger gladiussword pilumjavelin/spear scutumshield Equipment

11 A Roman soldier was expected to carry all of his own personal items, like the weapons from the previous slide and additional equipment. He had to carry his luggage, stakes for camp, bronze mess tin, cooking pot, rations for 3-20 (depending on the era) days, a saw, basket, pickax, sickle, leather strap and chain, shovel. The weight of the pack has been estimated at 66-100 lbs! Also soldiers were expected to march 18 miles a day, up to 30 if in a hurry! A Soldier’s Pack

12  Phalanx: shields were overlapped and spears extended  Testudo: shields were overlapped on all sides  Circumvallation: surrounding an area with ramparts and trenches, cutting it off  If storming a town did not work, the Romans starved it!  For sieges, battering rams, towers and catapults were all used. Tactics

13 Praetorian Guard  The personal body guard of the general and later the emperor  Recruited only from Italy  Served shorter lengths  Higher Pay Auxiliaries  The specialist needed in an army  Cavalry and archers  Recruited from allies or paid soldiers  Granted citizenship after service  Longer lengths of service Navy  The poorest citizens often became sailors.  Were ranked far below soldiers  Lower pay and longer terms of service  Not particularly great  Best maneuver was to use the ship as a platform to land soldiers Special Forces

14 Assignment Now that you know all about the Roman Army, it wants you! That’s is time for you to create a recruitment poster. Your poster must list what you can bring to the army, what you will carry, the size of your legion, how long you will serve and what salary you expect plus a graphic. Your poster should be appealing to the eye. Additionally, it should look like you took your time and put some effort into it. Your poster may be submitted through the assignment page as a word document or any other long as it can be readily opened.

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