Presentation on theme: "The Roman Army Why was such a large army needed? How were men recruited? How was the army organized? What was life like for a Roman Army soldier?"— Presentation transcript:
The Roman Army Why was such a large army needed? How were men recruited? How was the army organized? What was life like for a Roman Army soldier?
Why was such a large army needed? TASK: Look at the map. Using the map can you think of any reasons why the Roman Army increased in size?
The Development of the Roman Army Scipio Africanus = proper tactics 2 nd century B.C.E. = pilum; 6 years; no one under 17 years; any Roman could join; land given to legionaries at the end of service; men loyal to their leader Augustus = standing army (28 legions); 6 years to 20 years; aquilifer; immunes Task: Using the following words explain how the Roman Army developed from 201 B.C.E. to the time of Augustus (31-14 C.E.) outmanoeuvre wooden nailpilumhastaconscription seventeencapite censi (head count)landprofessional well trainedloyaltystanding armytwenty yearsstandard
How were men recruited? TASK Look at the cards with reasons why men joined the Roman Army. Sort the cards in to two groups: 1)Things that would make you join the Roman Army 2)Things that would not make you join the Roman Army
How was the Roman Army organised? 1 Contubernium-8 Men 10 Contubernia1 Century80 Men 2 Centuries1 Maniple160 Men 6 Centuries1 Cohort480 Men 10 Cohorts Horsemen1 Legion5240 Men * * 1 Legion = 9 normal cohorts (9 x 480 Men) + 1 "First Cohort" of 5 centuries (but each century at the strength of a maniple, so 5 x 160 Men) Horsemen = 5240 Men Task: Using the chart above answer the following questions: 1.How many men made a Century? 2.What could a century be divided in to? 3.How many Centuries made a Cohort? 4.How many men were there in a Cohort? 5.How many Horsemen were there in a Legion? 6.How many men were there in a Legion? 7.How many Centuries were there in a Legion?
Types of Soldiers Legionary Cavalry Auxiliary Numeri
Legionary Only Roman citizens could sign up for the army. They had to be fit. They were not allowed to marry. Their armour gave them excellent protection. They carried a curved shield. They could punch the enemy with the metal boss in the centre.
Centurion A centurion was in charge of a century made up of 80 legionary soldiers. His equipment was very different so his men could quickly find him in battle. He carried a vine stick as a badge of rank. He would use this to punish his men! The horsehair crest on his helmet went from side to side. He wore medals on his chest, awarded for bravery in battle. Centurions could marry, and their wives lived in the barracks with them. They did not march, they rode on horseback.
Auxiliary These were non-Roman citizens. They were recruited from tribes that had been conquered by Rome or were allied to Rome. They also served for 25 years. At the end of their service they gained Roman citizenship as a reward. The chain mail shirts of the infantry were made out of about twenty thousand links of metal. They wore a sword and a dagger - usually on two belts. They carried a flat oval shield and a spear which could be thrown and also used in hand to hand fighting.
Numeri Soldiers from outside the Roman Empire They wore native dress The introduction of the numeri was a response to the need for cheap troops, who were nevertheless fierce and provided a force balance of light infantry and cavalry. They were less well armed and less well trained than auxilia or legions
Task 1.Colour the drawings of the Centurion and the Legionary 2.Label the drawing of the Legionary correctly 3.Answer the questions about the Centurion
How did the Romans keep such a large army under control? The Roman army was very large and spread over a large area so keeping control was important The Roman soldiers were very disciplined and faced harsh punishments if they did not follow the rules
You be the Judge…… Below are a list of offences that Roman soldiers were known to have committed. On your table you have to decide what a fair punishment would be for each of the offences. Write your decisions on your chart. 1.Leaving your post because you were scared of dying 2.Committing the same fault three times (for example dropping their weapon on the battle field) 3.Marching too slowly 4.The whole Century retreat or refuse to fight 5.Supporting another leader or ruler 6.Losing equipment or food
OffenceYour punishmentRoman Army Punishment Leaving your post because you were scared of dying Committing the same fault three times (for example dropping their weapon on the battle field) Marching too slowly The whole Century retreat or refuse to fight Supporting another leader or ruler Losing equipment or food Roman Army Discipline
What was life like for a Roman legionary? Swear an oath of loyalty Build camp Marching miles/29.6km in 5 hrs Physical exercise Weapon training – armatura Wheat to eat – 1.5kg/day Engineering
What things did the Romans build?
TASK Imagine you are a legionary in the Roman Army Write a diary of your experiences You need to include the following information: a)Reasons why you joined the Roman Army b)How long you have been a legionary? c)What training did you have to complete to become a legionary? d)What your normal daily life is like? (what food you eat; jobs you do; where you live) e)What punishments have you been given or have seen others receive?