3Section 1 Learning Targets – I can explain how balanced equations apply to both chemistry and everyday life – I can interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of moles, representative particles, mass, and gas volume at STP – I can identify the quantities that are always conserved in chemical reactions.
4Using Everyday equations A balanced chemical equation provides the same kind of quantitative information that a recipe does.
5Using balanced chemical equations Chemists use balanced chemical equations as a basis to calculate how much reactant is needed or product is formed in a reaction.
6Example:Tiny tike has decided to make 288 tricycles each day. How many tricycle seats, wheels, and pedals are needed?
7Stoichiometry – the calculation of quantities in chemical reactions.
8Interpreting chemical equations A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in terms of different quantities, including; numbers of atoms, molecules, or moles, mass, and volume.
9Number of atomsA balanced equation indicates that the number and type of each atom that makes up each reactant also makes up each product.
10Number of moleculesHere the coefficients tell you how many molecules will react and form.Much like how many atoms.
17Mass conservation in chemical reactions Mass and atoms are conserved in every chemical reaction.
18___C2H4(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(g) Example:Balance the following equation.___C2H4(g) + ___O2(g) → ___CO2(g) + ___H2O(g)Interpret the balanced equation in terms of relative numbers of moles, volumes of gas at STP, and masses of reactants and products.
20Section 2 Learning Targets – I can construct mole ratios from balanced chemical equations and apply these ratios in stoichiometric calculations – I can calculate stoichiometric quantities from balanced chemical equations using units of moles, mass, representative particles, and volumes of gases at STP.
21Writing and using mole ratios Mole ratio – a conversion factor derived from the coefficients of a balanced chemical reaction interpreted in terms of moles.
22In chemical calculations, mole ratios are used to convert between moles of reactant and moles of product, between moles of products, or between moles reactants.
23Example: 4Al(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Al2O3(s) Write six mole ratios that can be derived from this equation.
24Mole-mole calculations The easiest way to see these is to do an example.W is the unknown, G is the given quantity.a and b are the coefficients from the balanced chemical equation.
32CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l) → C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq) Example:Acetylene gas (C2H2) is produced by adding water to calcium carbide (CaC2).CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l) → C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq)How many grams of acetylene are produced by adding water to 5.00g of calcium carbide?
33Other stoichiometric calculations In a typical stoichiometric problem, the given quantity is first converted to moles.Then the mole ratio from the balanced equation is used to calculate the number of moles of the wanted substance.
34Finally, the moles are converted to any other unit of measure related to the unit mole, as the problem requires.
39Section 3 Learning Targets – I can identify the limiting reagent in a reaction – I can calculate theoretical yield, actual yield, or percent yield given appropriate information.
40Limiting and excess reagents When cooking you know you need the right amounts of ingredients for the recipe to turn out.In a chemical reaction, an insufficient quantity of any of the reactants will limit the amount of product that forms.
41Limiting reagent – determines the amount of product that can be formed in the reaction. This is the one used up first in a reaction.The reaction can only “go” until this reactant is completely used up.Excess reagent – reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction.
43How would the amount of products formed if you started with four molecules of N2 and three molecules H2?
44C2H4(g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) Example:The equation for the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4) is:C2H4(g) + 3O2(g) → 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)If 2.70mol of C2H4 is reacted with 6.30mol of O2, identify the limiting reagent.
45The reactant that is present in the smaller amount by mass or volume is not necessarily the limiting reagent.
46EXAMPLE:The heat from an acetylene torch is produced by burning acetylene (C2H2) in oxygen:2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2OHow many grams of water can be produced by the reaction of 2.4 mol C2H2 with 7.4 mol O2?
47Percent yield Your grades are usually expressed as a percent Chemists use similar calculations when products are formed based on balanced equations.In theory all reactions would produce at 100%.In reality they don’t.
48Theoretical yield – the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants.Actual yield – the amount of product that actually forms when the reaction is carried out.
49Percent yield – ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent.
50Percent yield can be lowered by: The percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a reaction carried out in the laboratory.Percent yield can be lowered by:Impure reactants.Loss of product in filtration or transferring.If reactants or products have not been carefully measured.
51Fe2O3(s) + 3CO → 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g) Example:When 84.8g of iron (III) oxide reacts with an excess of carbon monoxide, iron is produced.Fe2O3(s) + 3CO → 2Fe(s) + 3CO2(g)What is the theoretical yield of iron?
52Example:If 50.0g of silicon dioxide is heated with an excess of carbon, 27.9g of silicon carbide is produced. SiO2(s) + 3C(s) → SiC(s) + 2CO(g)What is the percent yield of this reaction?