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Using Everyday Equations A balanced chemical equation provides the same kind of quantitative information that a recipe does. 12.1.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Everyday Equations A balanced chemical equation provides the same kind of quantitative information that a recipe does. 12.1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Everyday Equations A balanced chemical equation provides the same kind of quantitative information that a recipe does. 12.1

2 Using Balanced Chemical Equations How do chemists use balanced chemical equations? 12.1

3 Using Balanced Chemical Equations Chemists use balanced chemical equations as a basis to calculate how much reactant is needed or product is formed in a reaction. The calculation of quantities in chemical reactions is a subject of chemistry called stoichiometry. 12.1

4 Interpreting Chemical Equations A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in terms of different quantities, including numbers of atoms, molecules, or moles; mass; and volume. 12.1

5 Interpreting Chemical Equations Number of Atoms 12.1

6 Interpreting Chemical Equations Number of Molecules 12.1

7 Interpreting Chemical Equations Moles 12.1

8 Interpreting Chemical Equations Mass 12.1

9 Interpreting Chemical Equations Volume 12.1

10 Interpreting Chemical Equations 12.1

11 Mass Conservation in Chemical Reactions Mass and atoms are conserved in every chemical reaction.

12 Writing and Using Mole Ratios In chemical calculations, mole ratios are used to convert between moles of reactant and moles of product, between moles of reactants, or between moles of products. 12.2

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16 for Sample Problem 12.2

17 12.3

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20 for Sample Problem 12.3 `

21 Other Stoichiometric Calculations What is the general procedure for solving a stoichiometric problem? 12.2

22 Other Stoichiometric Calculations In a typical stoichiometric problem, the given quantity is first converted to moles. Then the mole ratio from the balanced equation is used to calculate the number of moles of the wanted substance. Finally, the moles are converted to any other unit of measurement related to the unit mole, as the problem requires. 12.2

23 Other Stoichiometric Calculations Solution Diagram 12.2

24 Other Stoichiometric Calculations Problem-Solving Approach 12.2

25 12.4

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28 for Sample Problem 12.4

29 12.5

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32 for Sample Problem 12.5

33 12.6

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37 for Sample Problem 12.5

38 Writing and Using Mole Ratios In chemical calculations, mole ratios are used to convert between moles of reactant and moles of product, between moles of reactants, or between moles of products. 12.2

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42 for Sample Problem 12.2

43 Writing and Using Mole Ratios Mass-Mass Calculations 12.2

44 12.3

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47 for Sample Problem 12.3 `

48 Other Stoichiometric Calculations What is the general procedure for solving a stoichiometric problem? 12.2

49 Other Stoichiometric Calculations In a typical stoichiometric problem, the given quantity is first converted to moles. Then the mole ratio from the balanced equation is used to calculate the number of moles of the wanted substance. Finally, the moles are converted to any other unit of measurement related to the unit mole, as the problem requires. 12.2

50 Other Stoichiometric Calculations Solution Diagram 12.2

51 Other Stoichiometric Calculations Problem-Solving Approach 12.2

52 12.4

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55 for Sample Problem 12.4

56 12.5

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59 for Sample Problem 12.5

60 12.6

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64 for Sample Problem 12.5

65 Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield If a carpenter had two tabletops and seven table legs, he could only build one four-legged table. The number of table legs is the limiting factor in the construction of four-legged tables. Similarly, in chemistry, the amount of product made in a chemical reaction may be limited by the amount of one or more of the reactants. 12.3

66 Limiting and Excess Reagents In a chemical reaction, an insufficient quantity of any of the reactants will limit the amount of product that forms. The limiting reagent is the reagent that determines the amount of product that can be formed by a reaction. 12.3

67 Limiting and Excess Reagents In the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen, hydrogen is the limiting reagent. Nitrogen is the reagent that is not completely used up in the reaction. The reagent that is not used up is called the excess reagent. 12.3

68 Limiting and Excess Reagents 12.3 The Chemical Equation for the Preparation of Ammonia

69 12.7

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71 12.8

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75 for Sample Problem 12.7

76 for Sample Problem 12.8

77 Percent Yield What does the percent yield of a reaction measure? 12.3

78 Percent Yield The percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of a reaction carried out in the laboratory. 12.3

79 Percent Yield –The theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants. –In contrast, the amount of product that actually forms when the reaction is carried out in the laboratory is called the actual yield. 12.3

80 Percent Yield The percent yield is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield expressed as a percent. 12.3

81 12.9

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84 for Sample Problem 12.9

85 12.10

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88 for Sample Problem 12.10


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