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Stoichiometry. Inquiry Activity Using 20 white balls (H), make 10 diatomic molecules. Make diatomic molecules using the yellow balls as well. Without.

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Presentation on theme: "Stoichiometry. Inquiry Activity Using 20 white balls (H), make 10 diatomic molecules. Make diatomic molecules using the yellow balls as well. Without."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stoichiometry

2 Inquiry Activity Using 20 white balls (H), make 10 diatomic molecules. Make diatomic molecules using the yellow balls as well. Without looking, have someone choose 10 molecules at random. Out of the chosen molecules, pair up the reactants using the following chemical equation:Y 2 + 3W 2  2YW 3 Pair up reactants until you run out of one of the reactants. This is your limiting reagent. Repeat the activity and see if you get the same results

3 Review – Balance these equations 1. N 2 + H 2  NH 3 2.H 2 S + O 2  SO 2 + H 2 O 3.H 2 + I 2  HI

4 Stoichiometry Study of the amount of substances consumed or produced in a chemical reaction – Requires Balanced Equations! Reactants  Products

5 Stoichiometry Reactants and Products ALWAYS the same Number of Atoms Mass Reactants and Products SOMETIMES the same Number of molecules Moles Volume N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3 Atoms 2 N 6 H = 2 N + 6 H Mass 28g + 6g = 34g Number of molecules 1 molecule 3 molecules 2 molecules Moles 1mole 3 moles 2moles Volume 22.4L 64.2L 44.8L

6 What is conserved in each reaction? Atoms? Mass? Number of Molecules? Moles? 1. H 2 + O 2  H 2 O 2. H 2 + I 2  2HI 3.C 2 H 2 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O

7 Calculations Mole ratio: Conversion factor using the coefficients of balanced chemical equations – Used to convert between moles of reactant and moles of product N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3 1 mol3 mol2mol So….. 1 mol N 2 2 mol NH 3 3mol H 2 3 mol H 2 1 mol N 2 2 mol NH 3

8 How many moles of ammonia (NH 3 ) are produced when 0.6mol nitrogen (N 2 ) reacts with hydrogen (H 2 )? 1.Write the chemical reaction: 2.What conversion do you use to get from N 2 to NH 3 ? 3.Solve

9 1. Al + O 2  Al 2 O 3 How many moles of aluminum are needed to form 3.7mol of aluminum oxide? How many moles of oxygen are required to react completely with 14.8mol Al? How many moles of Al 2 O 3 are formed when 0.78 mol O 2 reacts with aluminum?

10 Mole – Mass Calculations Calculate the number of grams of NH 3 produced by the reaction of 5.40g hydrogen with an excess of nitrogen. 1.What is the chemical reaction? 2.Conversion gram hydrogen  mol hydrogen  mol NH 3  gram NH 3

11 CaC 2 + H 2 O  C 2 H 2 + Ca(OH) 2 1.How many grams of acetylene gas (C 2 H 2 ) are produced by adding water to 5.00g CaC 2 ? 2.How many moles of CaC 2 are needed to react completely with 49.0g H 2 O?

12 Other conversions… Number of particles - 1 mol 6.02x10 23 particles Volume of gas at STP - 1 mol 22.4L So you should be able to convert: mass-massmol-mol mass-molmol-number of particles mol-volume of gas at STP ALYWAYS CONVERT THROUGH USING MOLES!!!

13 1.How many molecules of oxygen are produced when 29.2g of water is decomposed? H 2 O  H 2 + O 2 2.How many grams of nitrogen dioxide must react with water to produce 5.0x10 22 molecules of nitrogen monoxide? NO 2 + H 2 O  HNO 3 + NO

14 How many liters of nitrogen dioxide are produced when 34L of oxygen reacts with excess nitrogen monoxide? NO + O 2  NO 2

15 How much do you actually get? In any reaction, the amount of product formed is limited by the amount of reagents…. – Limiting Reagent: -determines the amount of product that can be formed -is completely used up in the reaction – Excess Reagent: - reactant is not completely used up

16 What is the limiting reagent when 80g of Cu reacts with 25g of S in the following reaction? Cu + S  Cu 2 S 1.Balance the equation 2.Convert grams to moles 3.What is the mole ratio between Cu and S? 4.Take the given mole quantity for one reagent (#2), multiply it by the mole ratio (#3) to find how many moles of the other reagent are needed 5.Compare moles needed to moles you have to find which one is limiting

17 1.If 2.70mol of C 2 H 4 is reacted with 6.30mol O 2, what is the limiting reagent? C 2 H 4 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O 2.What is the limiting reagent if 6.0g HCl reacts with 5.0g Mg? Mg + HCl  MgCl 2 + H 2

18 Limiting reagents can be used to find out how much product is actually made. What is the maximum number of grams of Cu 2 S that can be formed when 80.0 g Cu reacts with 25.0g S? Cu + S  Cu 2 S 1.What is the limiting reagent? 2.Use the limiting reagent to calculate the amount of product

19 How many grams of water can be produced by the reaction of 2.40mol C 2 H 2 with 7.4mol O 2 ? C 2 H 2 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O If 2.7mol C 2 H 4 is reacted with 6.3mol O 2, how many moles of water are produced? C 2 H 4 + O 2  CO + H 2 O

20 Things happen in lab… Theoretical yield: the maximum amount of product that could be formed Actual yield: the amount of product that is actually formed in lab Percent Yield = Actual yield x 100% Theoretical yield

21 What is the percent yield if 13.1g CaO is actually produced when 24.8g CaCO 3 is heated? CaCO 3  CaO + CO 2


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