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Chapter 9 Stoichiometry. 9.1 & 9.2 Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Stoichiometry - the study of the quantitative measurement problems between chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Stoichiometry. 9.1 & 9.2 Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Stoichiometry - the study of the quantitative measurement problems between chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Stoichiometry

2 9.1 & 9.2 Ideal Stoichiometric Calculations Stoichiometry - the study of the quantitative measurement problems between chemical formulas, reactions and equations.

3 The Mole Map Liters Atoms, molecules, particles Grams Mole 22.4 L 6.022 x10 23 Molar Mass

4 Stoichiometric Conversions Quick Review using the mole map  Ex1: 0.15 mol NaOH convert to grams  Ex2: 9.00g MgCl 2 convert to atoms of Chlorine

5 Stoichiometric Conversions Reaction stoichiometry  Example - combustion of propane: C 3 H 8 + __O 2  __CO 2 + __H 2 O  Thus, for every 1 propane, 5 moles of diatomic oxygen are required to produce 3 moles of carbon dioxide and 4 moles of water.

6 New The New Mole Map Mole Grams Liters Molecules Coefficients Molecules

7 Stoichiometric Conversions Four Core Steps:  Step #1 Write a BALANCED equation  Step #2 Go to moles  Step #3 Mole to Mole - cross the bridge  Step #4 Go to the desired unit

8 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex1: How many moles of water vapor are created from 2 moles of Hydrogen?  Balanced equation  Go to Mole  Mole to Mole  Desired Unit

9 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex2: How many grams of water vapor are created from 64.0 grams of Oxygen?  Balanced equation 2H 2(g) + O 2(g)  2H 2 O (g)  Go to Mole  Mole to Mole  Desired Unit

10 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex3: How many liters of H 2 O (g) are made from 5.00 L of Oxygen?  Balanced equation 2H 2(g) + O 2(g)  2H 2 O (g)  Go to Mole  Mole to Mole  Desired Unit

11 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex4: How many Liters of Oxygen are needed to react with 14.40 g C 5 H 12 ?  Balanced equation  Go to Mole  Mole to Mole  Desired Unit

12 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex5: How many grams of solid lithium hydroxide are needed to react with 8.50 grams of carbon dioxide gas?  (Lithium hydroxide + carbon dioxide yields Lithium carbonate and water) 9.23g LiOH

13 Stoichiometric Conversions Ex6: How many grams of water are produced from 2.00 moles of carbon dioxide and excess amount of lithium hydroxide? 36.0g Ex7: How many moles of lithium carbonate are produced from 152 grams of carbon dioxide and an excess amount of lithium hydroxide? 3.45mol

14 9.3 Limiting Reactant Problems and % Yield... The Limiting Reactant causes the reaction to stop…it is the reactant that is all used up in the chemical reaction.

15 Limiting Reactant Ex1: How many grams of Magnesium Chloride can be made from 3.64 g of magnesium and 7.10 g of Chlorine gas?  a: How much of the excess reactant did you use?  b: What percent of the excess was unused? ……

16 Limiting Reactant How many grams of Magnesium Chloride can be made from 3.64 g of magnesium and 7.10 g of Chlorine gas?

17 Limiting Reactant  How much of the excess reactant did you use?

18 Limiting Reactant What percent of the excess was unused?

19 Limiting Reactant and % Yield.From the equation: 2 HCl + Zn  ZnCl 2 + H 2  How many liters of H 2 can be made starting with 20.0 grams of Zn and 25.5 g HCl?  How many grams of Zinc chloride will be made?  Identify the limiting and excess reactants.  How much of the excess reactant is needed?  How much of the excess reactant is left over?

20 Limiting Reactant 2 HCl + Zn  ZnCl 2 + H 2  How many liters of H 2 can be made starting with 20.0 grams of Zn and 25.5 g HCl?

21 Limiting Reactant 2 HCl + Zn  ZnCl 2 + H 2  How many grams of Zinc chloride will be made?

22 Limiting Reactant 2 HCl + Zn  ZnCl 2 + H 2

23 Limiting Reactant  Identify the limiting and excess reactants.  How much of the excess reactant is needed?  How much of the excess reactant is left over?

24 % Yield % yield = mass produced x 100 mass theoretically produced

25 % Yield Ex1: If combusting 9.62 g of SO2 produces 11.95 g of SO3, calculate the % yield.

26 % Yield Ex2: Reacting 4.20 grams of Nitrogen with 0.800 g of Hydrogen produces ?g of NH3 if there is a 75.5 % yield? Thus, the limiting reactant, H2, theoretically produces _________ grams of NH3. So, if the % yield is ________, then the actual yield is:


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