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1 Addressing Reading Difficulties in the Classroom using Research- Based Intervention Strategies April Turner, M.A. Melissa Andersen, M.A. Sara Kupzyk,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Addressing Reading Difficulties in the Classroom using Research- Based Intervention Strategies April Turner, M.A. Melissa Andersen, M.A. Sara Kupzyk,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Addressing Reading Difficulties in the Classroom using Research- Based Intervention Strategies April Turner, M.A. Melissa Andersen, M.A. Sara Kupzyk, M.A.

2 2 Characteristics of a Functional Approach to Reading Intervention Student performance assessed directly in the curriculum Intervention targets student performance in important curricular tasks Intervention focuses on the components of instruction Criterion for successful intervention: observable and measurable improvement in student learning over time

3 3 The Master Plan for Effective Intervention Must start with strong curriculum Guide decision-making with frequent, on- going assessment Use research-based practices Tailor intervention to student’s actual need Develop and implement manageable plan Monitor plan implementation and student progress regularly

4 4 General Approaches to Intervention Selection Standard Protocol Problem-solving Regardless of the approach, selection of intervention must be based on the student’s actual need indicated by assessment data

5 5 Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) Assessing basic indicators of educational performance Correct Read Words (CRW) Per Minute is reliable and valid indicator of reading competence Measures accurate and fluent performance across materials and time (generalization) Frequent, repeated measurement improves decision-making

6 6 What Type of Problem? Problem IndicatorWhat to target Reading words in isolation High error rate Reads fewer than 20 words per minute Blending sounds Reading sight words Reading phonetically regular words Reading connected text Slow and labored text reading Reading fewer than 100 minutes per minute Accurate and fluent text reading Interpreting textDifficulty answering questions and recall Comprehension

7 7 Instructional Hierarchy Stage of learningInstructional Strategy AcquisitionModeling, prompting, error correction, feedback for every response FluencyPractice, incentives for improvement & feedback for performance GeneralizationPractice with diverse items/problems, using the skill with other skills, using the skill in natural settings Haring, Lovitt, Eaton, & Hansen, 1978

8 8 Matching Instruction to Need AccuracyFluencyGeneralization RW in isolation Modeling, prompting, error correction and feedback for every response Practice, incentives for improvement, and feedback for a collection of responses Practice with diverse items/problems, using the skill with other skills, using the skill in natural settings RW in text Interpret text

9 9 Interventions for Reading Words in Isolation Prerequisite skills for text reading  Letter Sounds and Letter Names  Segmenting and blending sounds (phonemes)  Decoding phonetically regular words  Reading sight words

10 10 Phoneme Blending Intervention Skill: Segmenting and blending sounds Materials: 4 Instructional words on flashcards, one blank flashcard  Instructional Words: error words chosen from the student’s reading text Decodable words with predictable and not unusual sounds  Appropriate: ship, soap, quick  Inappropriate: what (“a” sounds like “u”), these (silent “e”) Procedure/Demonstration:  First three times through the cards consists of sounding out each phoneme (expose one at a time using the blank card until student can see whole word), then blending them into each Instructional Word  Last time through consists of student reading each Instructional Word

11 11 Phonics Intervention Skill: Decoding phonetically regular words Materials: Word list, instructional passage Procedure/Demonstration:  Teach a phonics lesson  Train phonics words in isolation: model + prompt responses  Have students practice phonics words in passage Model, repeated readings, error correction, performance feedback

12 12 Flashcard Intervention Skills: Letter Sounds and Letter Names, Reading sight words Builds accuracy for unknown sounds, letters, and words Materials: Flashcards with letters or sight words Procedure/Demonstration (sight words):  Identify unknown words  Model the first two words and have the student repeat  Have the student say the words on their own  If student says all of the words correctly, shuffle the cards, model a new word and continue through remaining words.  If student does not say a word correctly or doesn’t respond, model the word and have student repeat, shuffle the cards, and repeat (do not add a new word until the student gets all of the words correct the first time)

13 13 Flashcard Intervention Example Nick- a 1 st grade student Weak sight word vocabulary

14 14 Reading Words in Connected Text Fluency:  Those who read words in text Accurately Quickly With less effort Fluent Readers  Enjoy reading more  More confident in reading skills  Have higher levels of comprehension  Are more likely to choose to read

15 15 Connected Text Interventions Listening Passage Preview Repeated Reading Error Correction  Phase Drill  Syllable Segmentation

16 16 Listening Passage Preview Materials  Two copies of the designated text Procedure/Demonstration  Read the story aloud to the student at an age- appropriate pace  Have the student follow along on the student copy as you read the text aloud

17 17 Repeated Readings Materials  Two copies of the selected reading text Student copy Examiner copy Procedure/Demonstration  Have the student read the text aloud three to four times  Each time the student reads the passage aloud, follow on the examiner copy  If the student hesitates on a word for more than 3 seconds, say the word and have the student read the word correctly

18 18 Enhancing Repeated Reading Choice of Reading Material  Give the student options of what to read Limit the length and amount of material  Keep the materials brief so student have multiple opportunities to read and re-read the same material Provide Encouragement  Discuss material with the student Graph student progress!

19 19 Error Correction: Phase Drill Materials  Two copies of the reading passage Student copy, Examiner copy  Highlighter  Stopwatch

20 20 Error Correction: Phase Drill Procedure/Demonstration  Have the student read the story aloud  While the student is reading the passage aloud, follow along on the Examiner Copy highlighting/underlining errors  If the student hesitates on a word for more than 3 seconds, sat the word and highlight/underline it  Show him/her your copy with the underline/highlighted errors  Read each error word to the student  Have the student read the phrase/sentence containing the word aloud three times  Have the student read the passage aloud again using the standard CBM error correction procedures

21 21 Error Correction: Syllable Segmentation Materials  Two copies of the reading passage Examiner copy, student copy

22 22 Error Correction: Syllable Segmentation Procedure/Demonstration  Identify error words using standard CBM procedures  The examiner uses an index card to cover each error word, uncovering and modeling the correct pronunciation of one syllable at a time  The student repeats the correct pronunciation of each syllable as the examiner uncovers them  The student then independently reads each syllable and blends the syllables together to pronounce the word  If mistakes are made, the previous steps are repeated

23 23 ComponentRationaleProcedural Steps Listening Passage Preview (LPP) Provides modeling to increase the student’s reading accuracy and fluency (Daly & Martens, 1994). The examiner reads the instructional passage to the student at a comfortable pace while simultaneously monitoring the student to ensure that he or she is correctly following along with his or her finger. Repeated Readings (RR) Designed to provide a student with multiple opportunities to respond by having the student re-read a passage repeatedly (Rashotte & Torgensen, 1985) The examiner has the student re-read a passage three times. Phrase Drill (PD) Designed to provide corrective feedback and accurate practice to increase correct responding (O’Shea, Munson, & O’Shea, 1984) As the student reads the passage the first time, the practitioner highlights or underlines the student’s errors. After the student finishes reading the passage, the practitioner points to and reads the first error word to the student. The student reads the error word correctly to the practitioner, and then reads the phrase or sentence containing the error word three times. This process is repeated for each error word. Syllable Segmentation (SS) Designed to increase accuracy by providing the students with further corrective feedback and practice blending the syllables of error words together (Daly, Bonfiglio, Mattson, Persampieri, & Yates, 2006). As the student reads the passage the second time, the practitioner uses an index card to cover each error word, uncovering and modeling the correct pronunciation of one syllable at a time. The student repeats the correct pronunciation of each syllable as the practitioner uncovers them. The student then independently reads each syllable and blends the syllables together to pronounce the word. If the student makes any mistakes during this process, the practitioner repeats the previous step. Connected Text Interventions Summary

24 24 Intervention for Interpreting Text Comprehension  The ultimate goal in reading Enhancing Comprehension  Pre-reading Activities  Post-reading Activities

25 25 Pre-Reading Comprehension Clarify purpose of reading  What is purpose of reading? Activate prior knowledge Pre-teach vocabulary Pre-teach concepts Choose material that is appropriate

26 26 Pre-Reading Comprehension: Unknown Words Pre-Teach Vocabulary  Say the word  Tell the students what it means  Use Context Clues

27 27 Pre-Reading Comprehension: Unknown Words What does it mean?  Directions: Make a list of words you do not know Then, write a definition for each word The definition can be another word that means the same thing or short description of that word WordDefinition _____________________________

28 28 Pre-Reading Comprehension: T.E.L.L.S T.E.L.L.S  Title What is the title? What is this about?  Form hypothesis and now read to see if they are correct, activate prior knowledge  Examine Clues  Pictures, headings and subheadings figures graphs  Look Important words  Used often, in bold, illustration may provide clues Unknown words  Setting Clues about the setting (time, place, date)

29 29 Enhancing Pre-Reading Comprehension Activities should be short and engaging May be taught and done in small groups where students can discuss  T.E.L.L.S Title  What do you think about? Look  Unknown words (others can tell what it means)  Important words (others can explain why they think word is important)

30 30 Post-reading Comprehension Strategies Summarize  Consolidate students knowledge Write down main ideas, important points, sequence of events Complete story maps, timelines, conflict charts

31 31 Incorporating Motivational/Reinforcement Strategies Motivational/Reinforcement Strategies  If the task requires much effort then to get the student to chose the task we must provide strong reinforcement Frequent Immediate Meaningful

32 32 Motivation/Reinforcement Student is given a story to read and questions to answer  Student completes the assignment with 95% correct  Student is praised and receives a good grade The task required little effort and time from the student so the weaker reinforcement is sufficient

33 33 Motivation/Reinforcement Joe tries really hard and completes three comprehension tasks Joe gets 60% correct, which is a big improvement but not enough for a good grade Done often enough, it is possible that Joe will stop trying because even if he did do well enough, all the effort would not be worth the reinforcement

34 34 Motivation/Reinforcement Solutions Praise Joe for completing each task  Increased frequency and immediacy of reinforcement Add an interdependent group-oriented contingency so that Joe’s effort and accuracy is reward  Example: if 70% of class gets 70% correct then the class gets a reward Promote cooperative learning

35 35 Additional Motivation/Reinforcement Strategies Reward Box  Comprised largely of activities (free and fun for all)  As long as one activity in the box is really cool for each student, then there is the possibility of something wonderful happening each day for each student  Also, high quality powerful reinforcer for students who need it because the task requires much effort

36 36 Group Adaptation Class-wide Peer Tutoring  Student pairs take turns reading aloud for a fixed amount of time  As the student reads “tutor” scores errors, provides correction  Switch roles in the student pair

37 37 Mix and Matching Interventions Identify student need  Acquisition Sounds or words in isolation  Fluency Reading connected text  Comprehension Understanding what is read Start with a research-based program Enhance the research-based program with additional strategies tailored to student need

38 38 Conclusions Each student’s need is unique  Must start with strong curriculum  Guide decision-making with frequent & on-going assessment  Use research-based practices  Tailor Intervention to student’s actual need  Develop and implement manageable plan  Monitor plan implementation and student progress regularly


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