Presentation on theme: "COMPREHENSION Reading First Stonewall Resort Fall 07 -adapted from presentations by Dr. Joe Torgenson and Dr. Anita Archer."— Presentation transcript:
COMPREHENSION Reading First Stonewall Resort Fall 07 -adapted from presentations by Dr. Joe Torgenson and Dr. Anita Archer
Before Reading passages Teach the pronunciation of difficult to read words. Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Teach or activate any necessary background knowledge. Preview the story or article.
Pronunciation If students can read the words in a passage accurately and fluently, their reading comprehension will be enhanced.
Pronunciation Carefully and systematically teach and review decoding skills that have been introduced in the core reading program.
Pronunciation Teach before passage is read: Program indication Difficult text Outside core program Pre-teach to struggling readers small group. Focus on accuracy, then fluency. Blend with vocabulary instruction
Pronunciation of difficult words Selection of words 1.Provided by core program 2.If not, preview passage to select 3.Divide words into 2 categories: 1.Tell Words – irregular words, words with untaught elements and foreign words 2.Strategy Words – words that can be decoded with minimal assistance
1. Tell words This word is ______________. What word? ______________ Spell and read the word. __________________________ Examples: there along upon woman
2. Strategy words Single syllable words Precorrect the difficult part of the word Look at the underlined letters. What sound? ___________ Sound out the word. (Pause) What word? ____________ rain boat seed
2. Strategy words Multisyllabic words Segment into decodable parts. Guide students in reading each part. What part?___________ What part? __________ What part?___________ Condensation atmosphere If any element is unknown, simply tell students the pronunciation of the element.
Meaning If students understand the meaning of critical vocabulary in the passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.
Meaning High-quality Classroom Language Reading Aloud to Students Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Word-learning Strategies Wide Independent Reading
Meaning Attributes of good vocabulary instruction Multiple exposures Definitional information and contextual information Sufficient amount of instructional time to insure understanding of words Active engagement in instruction
Meaning Select limited number for robust, explicit vocabulary instruction. 3 to 10 words per story for expanded instruction would be appropriate. Briefly tell the meaning of all other words that are needed for comprehension.
Meaning Words that are unknown. Words that are critical to passage understanding. Words that students are likely to encounter in the future and are generally useful. Goldilocks Words Not too difficult Not too easy Just right
Meaning Reading Level: 2 nd Passage: Lemonade for Sale Series: Harcourt Trophies announcedmembersneighborhood arrivedrebuildlemonade glumsquawkedclubhouse
Meaning Teach words AFTER you have read a story to your students and BEFORE students read a selection.
Routine of Isabel Beck Introduce word Student-friendly explanation Illustrate with examples Ask deep processing questions Examples & non-examples Generate own examples Story starter & then complete sentence
Review Word association Activity enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved Tell me the word that I am thinking about. Someone that hates you might be called an _____. If you didnt like a food, you might say it is _______. When a test is over, you often feel ________________. When you are asked to a party, you are ________.
Review Choose activity enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved If you felt relieved after a test, was the test probably easy or difficult? If an enemy gave you the answers before a test, would you believe the answers to be correct or incorrect? If the food was disgusting, would you ask for more or spit it up? If you were invited to a party, would you be asked to come or to stay away?
Background knowledge If students have the background knowledge required by a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.
Background knowledge Teach it! Strategy # 1 – Introduce as stated in core program. Actively engage students. Strategy # 2 – Front load by teaching additional background knowledge. Strategy # 3 – Prior to reading, select a read aloud that provides necessary background knowledge.
Activate background knowledge Strategy # 1 – Ask questions and engage in discussion to activate Strategy # 2 – KWL strategy Strategy # 3 – Brainstorm topics/questions that might be covered
Preview If students preview a passage, their comprehension will be enhanced.
Preview Discover the content to be covered. Learn what is emphasized. Organized Activate background knowledge Interest level
Preview - narrative Read title. Predict the content of story Preview the illustrations/pictures. Predict the content of the passage.
Preview – Expository/Informational Read title and predict content. Read introduction and ask What will we learn in this passage? Read headings and subheadings. Predict. Read the summary.
Preview Warm – Up – Science, Social Studies, Health BEGINNING Title Introduction MIDDLE Headings Subheadings END Summary Questions
Quick Notes from Dr. Archer and Dr. Torgenson Comprehension instruction must mirror the core program to show and continue student gains. Sustain the level of intensity Theres no way to teach perfect when children are present. To comprehend, students must be first taught how to respond. Decoding is necessary but not sufficient for comprehension.
Multisyllabic words –Many students do not read them; but the problem is that English uses them. Learn the rhythm of teaching. Reading First is not about being perfect, but teaching more students to read every year. Scaffold the probability that students can successfully answer the question. Scaffold before, NOT after reading the passage to ensure student understanding.