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Social and Cultural Trends Political and Economic Challenges The Gilded Age Angela Brown Chapter 5 Section 1 Chapter 7 Section 2

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Presentation on theme: "Social and Cultural Trends Political and Economic Challenges The Gilded Age Angela Brown Chapter 5 Section 1 Chapter 7 Section 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Social and Cultural Trends Political and Economic Challenges The Gilded Age Angela Brown Chapter 5 Section 1 Chapter 7 Section 2 collecting_scanner/gold_coin_collecting_Brit_4.jpg 1

2 Learning Targets: 2

3 Politics  Coined by Mark Twain, Gilded means “covered with a layer of gold”  A thin but glittering layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of most of society 3

4 Laissez-Faire Politics  Government should play a very limited role in business.  The strongest businesses will succeed and bring wealth to the whole nation.  People supported this when it benefited them. 4

5 AA subsidy – a payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries. EEx: railroad FFriendly politicians were gifted with money both legal and illegal. 5

6  Central Pacific Railroad budgeted $500,000 a year for bribes.  Collis Huntington – If you have to pay money to get the right thing done, its only just and fair to do it. 6

7 Spoils System eelected officials appointed friends and supporters to government jobs, regardless of qualifications ((Began in 1829 President Jackson) PParties had roughly the same number of supporters…strength. TTherefore, to avoid offending any voters they did not take strong stands on controversial issues. /port-jackson.jpg 7

8 Republicans =  industrialists, bankers, farmers (strongest in the North and Upper Midwest)  “Waved Bloody Shirt” blamed democrats for the Civil War 1. tight money supply backed by gold 2. high tariff to protect American business 3. generous pensions for union soldiers 8

9 1. government aid to railroads 2. strict limits on immigration 3. enforcement of blue laws  Blue Laws – regulations that prohibited certain private activities  Example: (drinking alcohol on Sunday) 9

10 Democrats =  less privileged, northern urban immigrants, laborers, southern planters, and western farmers  (claimed to represent interests of ordinary people) 1. increased money supply backed by silver 2. low tariffs on imported goods 10

11 4. high farm prices 5. less government aid to big business 6. fewer blue laws 11

12 Hays fights Spoils System  Elected in 1877, refused to use patronage system.  Appointed qualified political independents to cabinet posts/ fired unneeded employees.  Angered party members.  Did not seek another term; he would not have won the party nomination anyway. 12

13 HHe strengthened government but weakened the republican party. CCivil Service - non- elected government workers 13

14 Garfield’s Term Cut Short  1880 election republican party split into three factions regarding spoils system  Garfield won party nomination –  (half-breed for reform of spoils)  Chester Arthur chosen as Vice-President candidate – (Stalwart – for spoils)  Garfield defeated General Winfield S. Hancock 14

15  1881 assassinated by Charles Guiteau in D.C. railroad station  Guiteau was for the spoils system and had expected a job. He was outraged he didn’t get one.  This senseless act created an outcry against the spoils system _spies/assassins/charles_guiteau/4-3-Charles-Guiteau.jpg 15

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17 Arthur Ends Spoils System  President Chester Arthur urged reform of spoils after President Garfield’s death  Passed Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 – created a Civil Service Commission  Classified government jobs and tested applicant’s fitness for them  Stated federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaigns or be fired for political reasons /3/3d/Chester_Arthur.jpg/280px-Chester_Arthur.jpg 17

18 Democrats Take Power  1884 Republican James G. Blaine versus Democrat Grover Cleveland  Campaign focused on scandal.  Blaine accused of accepting railroad stock for favorable votes in Congress.  Cleveland fathered a child out of wedlock.  He admitted it 18

19  “Little Mugwumps” important chiefs.  Many republicans decided Blaine was to corrupt to support and voted for Cleveland.  The first democratic win since 1856.  Cleveland – tight money, took 80 million acres back fro the railroads, called for more regulation of railroads. 19

20 Regulating Railroads  1877, the Supreme Court, in Munn v. Illinois allowed states to regulate businesses within their borders.  1886 Wabash Case stated railroads crossed state borders so only federal government could regulate.  Interstate Commerce Act failed – lost 15 of 16 cases before the Supreme Court between 1887-1905. internal_chapters/images/patterns/train.jpg 20

21 Focus on Tariffs  Cleveland lost 1888 election to Republican Benjamin Harrison.  (won on increased tariff)  Sherman Anti-Trust Act.  Huge tariff increase in 1890.  Huge pensions to dependents of Civil War Soldiers.  Cleveland campaigned for lower tariffs and returned to Presidency in 1892. -pix/ben-harrison.jpg 21

22 Cleveland’s Second Term  1893 – four year depression – government offered no help.  1894 – Jacob Coxey marched on capitol demanding created jobs for the unemployed.  Cleveland upset everyone.  Farmers upset by the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 22

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24  Labor upset by use of federal troops to put down the Pullman Railroad Strike.  He failed to win nomination for 1896 election. 4/4e/Train_and_troops.png/270px-Train_and_troops.png Pullman_strike_guard_harpers.jpg/300px-Pullman_strike_guard_harpers.jpg 24

25 McKinley Wins in 1896  William Jennings Bryan (Populist/Democrat) lost to William McKinley (Republican) who was supported by urban workers and the middle class  Passed new tariff 25

26  Strengthened the gold standard = more decisive victory against Bryan in 1900  September 1901 at Pan-American Exposition mentally- ill anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot President McKinley spies/assassins/mckinley/8a.jpg 26

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