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Chapter 16: Politics and Reform 1877-1896 Section 1: Stalemate in Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Politics and Reform 1877-1896 Section 1: Stalemate in Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16: Politics and Reform Section 1: Stalemate in Washington

2 President James A. Garfield Office term I’m not comfortable with the “spoils system”

3 “The President’s tragic death was a sad necessity, but it will united the Republican party and save the Republic…I had no ill-will toward the President. His death was a political necessity. I am a lawyer, theologian, and politician. I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts…” Charles Guiteau

4 Stalwarts vs. Halfbreeds Stalwart (strong)- patronage-oriented faction of the Republican party late 19 th c. Halfbreeds-Republican reformers VS.

5 Pendleton Act Allowed president to decide which federal jobs would be filled according to rules laid down by a bipartisan Civil Service Commission A+

6 Republicans Republicans had voting edge in New England and upper Midwest b/c they had “preserved the Union” as well as established pensions for Civil War veterans -Support of Big business -Farmers of Great Plains -Support abolition, temperance and other reforms -Most Republicans were Protestants who viewed their party as the defender of traditional American morals and values

7 Democrats “Party of personal liberty” Democrats dominated the South where white voters remained anti-Republican following the Civil War and reconstruction Support of Catholics and immigrants in big cities

8 Voter turn-out and elections Narrow wins between Swing states of N.Y., Ohio, and P.A. In 1876 and 1888, candidates lost popular vote but won election

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10 Election of 1884 Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland of N.Y. Republicans nominate James G. Blaine, former Speaker of the House Credit Mobilier scandal Mugwumps- Republicans who support Cleveland-moral leaders who help nation over political parties and divisions. N.Y. and Massachusetts

11 Business and Economy Worker unrest- Haymarket Square Riot 1886 Rebates for large corporations Government should not interfere with corporations’ property rights Wabash v. Illinois 1886 Interstate Commerce Commission – Limited RR rates to “reasonable and just” – Forbade rebates to high volume users – Made it illegal to charger higher rates for shorter hauls

12 Election of 1888 Cleveland and Democrats campaign against unnecessarily high tariffs Republicans nominate Benjamin Harrison – McKinley Tariff- cut tobacco taxes and rates on raw sugar but increased textiles to discourage people from buying imports -> Budget deficit Increased payment to Civil War veterans as well

13 Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 Declared illegal any “combination in the form of trust…in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States…”


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