After the collapse... India divided by regional states. – Harsha Vardhana (r. 606–646) united northern states during his reign – He was a Buddhist Chola – Southern India – 300’s BCE – c. 1300 CE – Important trading state
Axumite Empire Egypt Persia Japan Korea China Khmer Empire Srivijaya Chola
SPICE PROPERTIES PEPPER The most widely used spice, then and now. GINGER Digestive Carminative Stimulant Counteract anemia and liver complaints; to Ward off colds. CINNAMON A stimulant Carminative Astringent Some reputed qualities as a food preservative. CLOVES Digestive Stimulant Local anesthetic (e.g., toothaches) CARDAMOM Digestive Counteract bad breath Headaches Fevers Colds
Northern India Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna created an empire from Iran to India, 997–1030. – Muslim raids very disruptive, unlike traditional warfare between Hindu states. – Violence and looting was accompanied by destruction of temples, and enforcing – Sharia and a non-Muslim head tax in conquered areas. Muhammad of Ghur (1150-1206) – Invaded India in 1192 – Conquered the remnants of Gazna’s empire – Created a Muslim state at Delhi.
Muhammad’s state soon replaced by Turkic Delhi Sultanate. – Delhi Sultanate lasted from 1206 to 1526. – Held off the Mongol invasions that destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258. "Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons; I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions...”
Balban seized power from 1265 to 1287. – Followed by years of court intrigue and succession struggles. In 1320 the Tughlug Dynasty took over until weakened by Timur (Tamerlane).
Timur “the Lame” (Tamerlane) - (1336 – 1405) Sought to re-establish the Mongol Empire. His campaigns killed 17,000,000 people. Corresponded with Charles VI of France. Exchanged ambassadors with Henry II of Castile.
Inscription on Timur’s tomb: "When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble." Tomb opened in 1941. Inscription inside the casket: "Who ever opens my tomb, shall unleash an invader more terrible than I.“ Two days later Hitler invaded the Soviet Union.
Sikhism In the 1400’s Hindu and Muslim mysticism merged in a new religion. Founded by Nanak. – Stresses direct emotional experience of the divine. Opposed by both Hindus and Muslims.
Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539) God as not wholly unknowable. God is omnipresent God is visible everywhere to the spiritually awakened God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the heart. Mediation leads toward enlightenment. God has no gender and is without form There are many worlds on which God has created life.