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Spread of Islam into South and Southeast Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Spread of Islam into South and Southeast Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spread of Islam into South and Southeast Asia
CE Jay Langlois Robert E. Lee High School Baytown, TX

2 South Asia India had always been subject to waves of invasions
Nomadic peoples Displaced peoples

3 South Asia Most became assimilated Became Hindu or Buddhist
Became part of the caste hierarchy Adopted the dress, food, and culture of those already there

4 South Asia As a result, the arrival of new peoples did not significantly challenge the existing order This will all change with the arrival of Islam in the early years of the 8th century

5 South Asia After the collapse of the Gupta Empire (end of the 5th century), India had collapsed again into its regional divisions This will leave the area open to conquest by the Muslims

6 South Asia Beginning in the early 8th century, waves of Muslim groups begin entering India and establishing a foothold (in the area of the Sind) At first, this caused little change – the conquerors promised lower taxes and greater religious tolerance Hindus and Buddhists became dhimmis They also allowed local elites and rulers to stay in power

7 South Asia Exchange Indian learning was transmitted through Muslim merchants to the west Of particular importance was Indian advances in algebra and geometry, which rivaled those of Greece Arabs also began using Indian numerals (which we now call Arabic numerals, but they started in India)

8 South Asia In the 10th and 11th centuries, a new wave of Muslim invasions began More violent, more vicious, and much more interested in territorial conquest This wave conquered much of northern India, and established a capital at Delhi

9 South Asia Since the ruler of this new empire called himself the sultan, this period in Indian history is known as the Delhi Sultanate


11 South Asia However, most of this period is characterized by accommodation and peaceful exchanges – since the Muslims needed Hindu elites and rulers to help them There were many conversions to Islam, but, again, few were forcible

12 South Asia In spite of the number of conquests, the Delhi Sultanate made little impression on the Hindu community as a whole They took positions as administrators and soldiers in the empire, but stayed socially aloof from their conquerors

13 South Asia Hindus probably expected that the Muslim invaders would soon become assimilated into their culture and religion, as so many had before But the Muslims held to their own beliefs and rituals – and there are probably no two more opposing religions than Hinduism and Islam

14 South Asia Hindus eventually realized that they were faced with an actively evangelical religion, with so many significant differences and beliefs, there was bound to be conflict between the two

15 South Asia Over the centuries, it became obvious that, in spite of many people’s attempts, the two religions were not compatible, and could not be fused into one belief system

16 South Asia The Muslim community continued to grow, and while Hinduism remained the majority religion (by far), the ruling elite was primarily Muslim Unlike other areas conquered by the Muslims, the Hindus showed little interest in conversion

17 Southeast Asia Always significant as a trading area, the islands of Southeast Asia are a meeting point – a place where merchants and traders from East Asia, India, Africa, and the Middle East all converge


19 Southeast Asia By the 7th and 8th centuries, Muslim merchants were making their way from India into Southeast Asia By this point, Muslims controlled most of the trade coming into and out of India

20 Southeast Asia Conversion in this area was easier than in India, because, while there were many faiths there, no one religious system dominated the islands Merchants introduced locals to the ideas and rituals of Islam and also brought Sufis to the area

21 Southeast Asia Malacca – the most important port in Southeast Asia
Once the Muslim religion had “conquered” this city, it spread far and wide among the islands, ports, and trading villages of Southeast Asia

22 Southeast Asia However, there were areas with strong Hindu and/or Buddhist traditions, and many of these were resistant to Muslim incursion

23 Southeast Asia As Islam spread into this area, it underwent some significant changes, incorporating some of the local beliefs and rituals This will cause problems later, because orthodox Muslims will not accept it as true Islam

24 Accommodation Now is a good time to bring up the reality that this fact is true of all major religions As religions spread, they are forced to accommodate themselves somewhat to local traditions and beliefs in order to gain converts

25 Accommodation For example, Christianity incorporated some major Celtic traditions and beliefs into its religion to gain converts in northern and western Europe Many Christmas traditions evolved from this exchange of ideas

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