113.8 Describe how bacteria are used in the production of yogurt from milk by the conversion of lactose to lactic acid 3.9 Investigate the effect of different factors on yogurt makingYoghurt animationDu Pont cheese ChymosinBBC clip fermentation& food
123.6 Describe how mycoprotein is manufactured, including the role of the fungus Fusarium sp.
133.10 Describe the use of enzyme technology including: chymosin, produced by genetically modified micro-organisms, used in the manufacture of vegetarian cheeseinvertase (sucrase) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), used in the manufacture of sweetsenzymes used in washing powders3.12 Investigate the use of enzymes in food production
193.11 Investigate the use of immobilised lactase to produce lactosefree milk
20Immobilised enzymes advantages higher temperature because the active site is less likely to change shape (denature) – higher temperature means higher rate of reaction - so yield can be increasedcontinuous flow processing - alginate beads can be packed into large columns - raw materials are added at one end, are acted on by the enzymes as they pass through the column, and the product flows out of the other endenzyme does not contaminate the reaction mixture (product doesn’t need to be extracted/purified at the end)
22Quick check Invertase converts glucose to fructose Invertase is produced by yeast cellsInvertase is produced by genetically modified yeast cells
23GMO = genetically modified organism How to extract a gene and insert it into a plasmidRestriction enzymes & DNA ligaseHow to produce the product of a geneGene for making human insulin
24GMO organisms3.13 Explain recombinant DNA technology using insulin as an example, including:a restriction enzymesb ligasec sticky endsOverviewLink to Genetic engineeringCut & StickRestriction enzymes
30Adenovirus – viral vector Adenoviruses are human viruses that causes respiratory diseases including the common cold.Their genetic material is double-stranded DNA, and they are ideal for delivering genes to living patients in gene therapy.Their DNA is not incorporated into the host’s chromosomes, so it is not replicated, but their genes are expressed.
313.15 Explain how Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used as a vector in creating transgenic plants
323.16 Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing genes for insect resistance from Bacillus thuringiensis into crop plants
34Genetic modification of crop plants 3.17 Demonstrate an understanding of the costs and benefits of genetic modification of crop plants in the context of developed and developing countries, including the introduction of flavonoids in the purple tomato
45Biofuelsadvantages and disadvantages of replacing fossil fuels with biofuelsbiofuels are renewabletheir production uses carbon dioxidegrowing the crops - requires land and may affect the availability of land for growing foodBiofuels introduction