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Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services

2 Food Medicines Crops & Biofuels
Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products Food Medicines Crops & Biofuels


4 3.2 Describe a fermenter as a vessel used to cultivate microorganisms for the production of biomolecules on a large scale

5 3.3 Explain suitable conditions in fermenters, and the effect they have on growth rates, including:
aseptic precautions nutrients optimum temperature pH oxygenation agitation

6 Yield is the amount of product formed

7 Growth of yeast cells

8 She measured the volume of gas given off at each temperature every 2 minutes for 20 minutes.

9 Stacey concluded that yeast breaks down sugar most quickly at 40 °C.
This is not a valid conclusion because . . .


11 3.8 Describe how bacteria are used in the production of yogurt from milk by the conversion of lactose to lactic acid 3.9 Investigate the effect of different factors on yogurt making Yoghurt animation Du Pont cheese Chymosin BBC clip fermentation & food

12 3.6 Describe how mycoprotein is manufactured, including the role of the fungus Fusarium sp.

13 3.10 Describe the use of enzyme technology including:
chymosin, produced by genetically modified micro-organisms, used in the manufacture of vegetarian cheese invertase (sucrase) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), used in the manufacture of sweets enzymes used in washing powders 3.12 Investigate the use of enzymes in food production

14 What has this got to do with todays lesson?

15 Invertase

16 Chymosin GMO = yeast

17 Pectinase and cellulase

18 Proteases and lipases

19 3.11 Investigate the use of immobilised lactase to produce lactosefree milk

20 Immobilised enzymes advantages
higher temperature because the active site is less likely to change shape (denature) – higher temperature means higher rate of reaction - so yield can be increased continuous flow processing - alginate beads can be packed into large columns - raw materials are added at one end, are acted on by the enzymes as they pass through the column, and the product flows out of the other end enzyme does not contaminate the reaction mixture (product doesn’t need to be extracted/purified at the end)


22 Quick check Invertase converts glucose to fructose
Invertase is produced by yeast cells Invertase is produced by genetically modified yeast cells

23 GMO = genetically modified organism
How to extract a gene and insert it into a plasmid Restriction enzymes & DNA ligase How to produce the product of a gene Gene for making human insulin

24 GMO organisms 3.13 Explain recombinant DNA technology using insulin as an example, including: a restriction enzymes b ligase c sticky ends Overview Link to Genetic engineering Cut & Stick Restriction enzymes


26 Restriction enzymes Recognition sequence Restriction fragments

27 DNA ligase ‘Sticky ends’


29 Plasmid vector.                                                                                                                                                                                                       

30 Adenovirus – viral vector
Adenoviruses are human viruses that causes respiratory diseases including the common cold. Their genetic material is double-stranded DNA, and they are ideal for delivering genes to living patients in gene therapy. Their DNA is not incorporated into the host’s chromosomes, so it is not replicated, but their genes are expressed.

31 3.15 Explain how Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used as a vector in creating transgenic plants

32 3.16 Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing genes for insect resistance from Bacillus thuringiensis into crop plants

33 Vectors Vectors

34 Genetic modification of crop plants
3.17 Demonstrate an understanding of the costs and benefits of genetic modification of crop plants in the context of developed and developing countries, including the introduction of flavonoids in the purple tomato

35 GM crops

36 3.18 Explain how increased food production for humans includes:
p.78/79 B3 Extension conventional plant breeding programmes (& importance of seed banks/biodiversity) pest management strategies genetic modification Golden rice Herbicide resistance Purple tomatoes IPS Pesticides GMO Golden rice Herbicide Resistant crops GMO Soy Monsanto Herbicide resistance Against Monsanto Purple tomatoes Greenpeace Bees

37 A new superfood? Purple tomatoes Cathie Martin's purple tomatoes have 20% more anthocyanins than conventional ones.


39 Selective breeding programmes
Key ideas: Same plant species Variation in genes Sexual reproduction (pollen/ova) Selection of offspring Growth & breeding from selected plants

40 3.14 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of human population growth on global food security
In 2011 just over 7 billion 7 thousand million 7,000,000,000

41 World population

42 World population density

43 World cereal production
Biofuels and maize Good news for US farmers

44 What does this graph predict?

45 Biofuels advantages and disadvantages of replacing fossil fuels with biofuels biofuels are renewable their production uses carbon dioxide growing the crops - requires land and may affect the availability of land for growing food Biofuels introduction

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