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Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services."— Presentation transcript:


2 Biotechnology ~ the alteration of natural biomolecules using science and engineering to provide goods and services

3 Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products MedicinesCropsFood & Biofuels


5 3.2 Describe a fermenter as a vessel used to cultivate microorganisms for the production of biomolecules on a large scale

6 3.3 Explain suitable conditions in fermenters, and the effect they have on growth rates, including: 1.aseptic precautions 2.nutrients 3.optimum temperature 4.pH 5.oxygenation 6.agitation

7 Yield is the amount of product formed

8 Growth of yeast cells

9 She measured the volume of gas given off at each temperature every 2 minutes for 20 minutes.

10 Stacey concluded that yeast breaks down sugar most quickly at 40 °C. This is not a valid conclusion because...


12 3.8 Describe how bacteria are used in the production of yogurt from milk by the conversion of lactose to lactic acid 3.9 Investigate the effect of different factors on yogurt making BBC clip fermentation & food Yoghurt animationDu Pont cheese Chymosin

13 3.6 Describe how mycoprotein is manufactured, including the role of the fungus Fusarium sp.

14 3.10 Describe the use of enzyme technology including: 1.chymosin, produced by genetically modified micro- organisms, used in the manufacture of vegetarian cheese 2.invertase (sucrase) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), used in the manufacture of sweets 3.enzymes used in washing powders 3.12 Investigate the use of enzymes in food production

15 What has this got to do with todays lesson?

16 Invertase

17 Chymosin GMO = yeast

18 Pectinase and cellulase

19 Proteases and lipases

20 3.11 Investigate the use of immobilised lactase to produce lactosefree milk

21 Immobilised enzymes advantages higher temperature because the active site is less likely to change shape (denature) – higher temperature means higher rate of reaction - so yield can be increased continuous flow processing - alginate beads can be packed into large columns - raw materials are added at one end, are acted on by the enzymes as they pass through the column, and the product flows out of the other end enzyme does not contaminate the reaction mixture (product doesn’t need to be extracted/purified at the end)


23 Quick check 1.Invertase converts glucose to fructose 2.Invertase is produced by yeast cells 3.Invertase is produced by genetically modified yeast cells

24 1.How to extract a gene and insert it into a plasmid – Restriction enzymes & DNA ligase 2.How to produce the product of a gene – Gene for making human insulin GMO = genetically modified organism

25 GMO organisms 3.13 Explain recombinant DNA technology using insulin as an example, including: a restriction enzymes b ligase c sticky ends Overview Link to Genetic engineering Cut & Stick Restriction enzymes


27 Recognition sequence Restriction fragments

28 DNA ligase ‘Sticky ends’


30 Plasmid vector.

31 Adenovirus – viral vector Adenoviruses are human viruses that causes respiratory diseases including the common cold. Their genetic material is double-stranded DNA, and they are ideal for delivering genes to living patients in gene therapy. Their DNA is not incorporated into the host’s chromosomes, so it is not replicated, but their genes are expressed.

32 3.15 Explain how Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used as a vector in creating transgenic plants

33 3.16 Demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of introducing genes for insect resistance from Bacillus thuringiensis into crop plants

34 Vectors

35 Genetic modification of crop plants 3.17 Demonstrate an understanding of the costs and benefits of genetic modification of crop plants in the context of developed and developing countries, including the introduction of flavonoids in the purple tomato

36 GM crops

37 3.18 Explain how increased food production for humans includes: conventional plant breeding programmes (& importance of seed banks/biodiversity) pest management strategies genetic modification – Golden rice – Herbicide resistance – Purple tomatoes Pesticides IPS Golden rice GMO Herbicide resistance Herbicide Resistant crops GMO Soy Monsanto Greenpeace Against Monsanto Purple tomatoes p.78/79 B3 Extension Bees

38 A new superfood? Cathie Martin's purple tomatoes have 20% more anthocyanins than conventional ones. Purple tomatoes


40 Selective breeding programmes Key ideas: Same plant species Variation in genes Sexual reproduction (pollen/ova) Selection of offspring Growth & breeding from selected plants

41 3.14 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of human population growth on global food security In 2011 just over 7 billion 7 thousand million 7,000,000,000

42 World population

43 World population density

44 Biofuels and maize World cereal production Good news for US farmers

45 What does this graph predict?

46 Biofuels 1.advantages and disadvantages of replacing fossil fuels with biofuels biofuels are renewable their production uses carbon dioxide growing the crops - requires land and may affect the availability of land for growing food /time-explains-biofuels/ Biofuels introduction

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