DNA technology-Combines genes from different organisms The organism is called "genetically modified," "genetically engineered," or "transgenic."
At least a quarter of all U.S. corn production today is Genetically Modified
Pros Crops Pros Animals better taste & quality Reduced time to mature More nutritious yields, and stress tolerance Better resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides Increased resistance to disease, productivity, hardiness, Higher amounts of meat, eggs, &milk produced Improved animal health and diagnostic methods
Environmental Pros Society Pros Environmentally friendly bioherbicides and bioinsecticides Saving soil, water, & energy Bioprocessing for forestry products Better natural waste management More efficient processing Increased food security for growing population
Possible human health impacts Possible environmental impacts Domination of world food production by a few companies ◦ Ex: ADM Co. Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing countries
Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa
a technique for correcting defective genes responsible for disease development. A carrier called a vector is used to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient. Currently, the most common vector is a virus that has been genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. Target cells such as the liver or lung cells are infected with the viral vector. The vector then unloads its genetic material containing the therapeutic human gene into the target cell.
Pros Treatment of a genetic disease for which no treatment is currently available Potential for life- long treatment from a single injection Cons Immune response viruses may target the wrong cells May be inserted into the wrong place in the DNA may lead to the development of a tumor
Pros Improved Nutritional Quality Insect Resistance Disease Resistance Herbicide Resistance Biopharmaceuticals (The genes for proteins to be used in human (and animal) medicine can be inserted into plants and expressed by them) Cons endangering native species unknown health risks "genetically contaminate" wild populations and ecosystems
Introducing new traits into plants using recombinant DNA technology. There are several methods for introducing genes into plants, including: infecting plant cells with plasmids as vectors carrying the desired gene shooting microscopic pellets containing the gene directly into the cell.
Making an exact copy of an organism by using its DNA Insert DNA into an ‘empty’ egg, implant it in a surrogate, and a new offspring/clone is born
Pros organ transplant propagation of animals facing extinction produce skin, cartilages, and bones to save the victims of burns and accidents produce cells to cure cancer, or repair the retina, or the spinal column Cons ETHICS Has not been perfected yet Health risks from mutation of genes Animal clones have had: - shorter life expectancy - liver failure - compromised immune function - tumor growth
cells that have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body can be grown indefinitely in the laboratory
Pros Can be used to treat diseases which currently have no cure replacement cells and tissues/organs Cons Come from human embryos or fetuses ETHICS
Gene splicing involves cutting out part of the DNA in a gene and adding new DNA in its place. The desired gene is then replicated usually in bacteria (reproduce quickly)
Pros used for production of insulin and growth hormone Cons genetic technology raises ethical questions
DNA is unique from person to person but the same from cell to cell in one person DNA is extracted from cells and mixed with enzymes which cut the DNA into fragments these fragments are exposed to electrical current and separate leaving a unique pattern
Pros DNA is unique from person to person but the same from cell to cell in one person Paternity and Maternity Criminal Identification and Forensics Personal Identification Wildlife Management Cons Invasion of privacy (ETHICS)