Presentation on theme: "Greece (1750 B.C. – 133 B.C.). Early People of the Aegean."— Presentation transcript:
Greece (1750 B.C. – 133 B.C.)
Early People of the Aegean
Minoans An ancient civilization that flourished on Crete Based on trade, not conquest Palace at Knossos Vanished by 1400 B.C.
Knossos, the Minoan Palace
Mycenae Invaders who helped destroy Minoan civilization First Greek-speaking people of whom we have written record Successful sea traders with wealthy warrior kings Best remembered for their part in the Trojan War
Thick walls of a Mycenaean fortress.
The Mycenaeans collected hoards of treasure. Mask of Agamemnon
Mycenean gold from shaft graves in Mycenae as displayed in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens
Polis Usually developed around a fort Covered a small area of land Most had a population of fewer than 10,000 Only free adult males had citizenship rights Had an agora, or marketplace
Geography of Greece Mountainous, rugged land kept civilization divided into independent, often rivaling city-states The seas were vital link to the world outside. Greeks became skilled sailors and traders. Greeks carried ideas and culture wherever they went.
Early Governments Polis – city-state (acropolis & lower main city) Monarchy – rule by a king or queen Aristocracy – rule by land holding elite Oligarchy – rule by small group (usually business class)
Changes in Warfare Iron weapons replaced bronze ones (Bronze is typically 60% copper and 40% tin.)copper tin Phalanx – massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers, required long hours of drill
Forces for Unity Sharing a common culture Religious beliefs View of non-Greeks (barbaroi) Olympic Games
Began in Olympia, a Greek city-state Athletic contests honored Zeus Helped unify Greece Warring city-states would call a truce so that people could attend the games.
Mt. Olympus, Greece
Homeric Age Did not have a very advanced civilization Iliad Odyssey Epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, written by blind poet Homer
Sparta City-state of warriors A military state Children began military training at 7 yrs old Women were supposed to exercise and bear healthy children Isolated from other Greeks
Athens Athens symbolized freedom, art, and democracy. The city-state took its name from Athena, the goddess of wisdom and knowledge. Sparta’s strongest rival, wealthy and powerful Limited democracy Solon, a wise and trusted leader made many reforms Legislature developed later
Daily life in Athens Economy based on trade Magnificent temples & public buildings Great value placed on literacy & education Ethics Ethics – deals with what is good and bad, moral duty Rhetoric Rhetoric – study of public speaking and debate
Amphitheater in Athens Measures 80m in diameter and can hold 5,000 people. It was originally covered by a cedar roof. The orchestra and seating have all been restored so that the odeon can be used for concerts today.
Expansion of Greece
Persian Wars 500 B.C. Athens the wealthiest city-state Persian empire threatening borders, taking Greek city-states of Ionia Athens came Ionia’s aid when they rebelled against the Persians Ionians fell but Athens now had a reputation
Spartans throw a Persian envoy down a well Darius I of Persia
Greek Hoplites. The warriors are shown in two attack positions, with both an overhand and underhand thrust.
Marathon and more… “Remember the Athenians” Athenians triumph over Persians led by Darius at Marathon edsitement.neh.gov/Persian01_flash_page.asp Darius’ son Xerxes came back, defeated the Spartans (Battle of Thermopylae) and marched to Athens Athenians withdrew from the city and used their ships to destroy the Persian fleet Forced Greeks to become more unified edsitement.neh.gov/PersiaGreeceWars01.asp
Delian League An alliance of city-states with Athens as leader
Golden Age of Pericles BC The years after the Persian Wars were a golden age for Athens Pericles, a wise and skillful leader, helped the government become more democratic Set up a direct democracy The Acropolis was rebuilt with beautiful statues and new temples Growing resentment from the other city- states
Pericles Contemporary reconstruction of Athena. The original was made of gold and ivory over a wood frame, was 30 feet high, and was located in the main inner room of the Parthenon.
“The Peloponnesus [Sparta] and Athens were both full of young men whose inexperience made them eager to take up arms.” - Thucydides
Peloponnesian War Fighting between the Greek city states Dragged on for 27 years Sparta invades Athens, PLAGUE kills 1/3 of population Sparta conquered Athens with the help of Persia Ended Athenian dominance in the Greek world map