Mycenae Invaders who helped destroy Minoan civilization First Greek-speaking people of whom we have written record Successful sea traders with wealthy warrior kings Best remembered for their part in the Trojan War
Polis Usually developed around a fort Covered a small area of land Most had a population of fewer than 10,000 Only free adult males had citizenship rights Had an agora, or marketplace
Geography of Greece Mountainous, rugged land kept civilization divided into independent, often rivaling city-states The seas were vital link to the world outside. Greeks became skilled sailors and traders. Greeks carried ideas and culture wherever they went.
Early Governments Polis – city-state (acropolis & lower main city) Monarchy – rule by a king or queen Aristocracy – rule by land holding elite Oligarchy – rule by small group (usually business class)
Athens Athens symbolized freedom, art, and democracy. The city-state took its name from Athena, the goddess of wisdom and knowledge. Sparta’s strongest rival, wealthy and powerful Limited democracy Solon, a wise and trusted leader made many reforms Legislature developed later
Daily life in Athens Economy based on trade Magnificent temples & public buildings Great value placed on literacy & education Ethics Ethics – deals with what is good and bad, moral duty Rhetoric Rhetoric – study of public speaking and debate
Amphitheater in Athens Measures 80m in diameter and can hold 5,000 people. It was originally covered by a cedar roof. The orchestra and seating have all been restored so that the odeon can be used for concerts today.
Persian Wars 500 B.C. Athens the wealthiest city-state Persian empire threatening borders, taking Greek city-states of Ionia Athens came Ionia’s aid when they rebelled against the Persians Ionians fell but Athens now had a reputation
Spartans throw a Persian envoy down a well Darius I of Persia
Greek Hoplites. The warriors are shown in two attack positions, with both an overhand and underhand thrust.
Marathon and more… “Remember the Athenians” Athenians triumph over Persians led by Darius at Marathon edsitement.neh.gov/Persian01_flash_page.asp Darius’ son Xerxes came back, defeated the Spartans (Battle of Thermopylae) and marched to Athens Athenians withdrew from the city and used their ships to destroy the Persian fleet Forced Greeks to become more unified edsitement.neh.gov/PersiaGreeceWars01.asp
Delian League An alliance of city-states with Athens as leader
Golden Age of Pericles 480 - 431 BC The years after the Persian Wars were a golden age for Athens Pericles, a wise and skillful leader, helped the government become more democratic Set up a direct democracy The Acropolis was rebuilt with beautiful statues and new temples Growing resentment from the other city- states
Pericles Contemporary reconstruction of Athena. The original was made of gold and ivory over a wood frame, was 30 feet high, and was located in the main inner room of the Parthenon.
“The Peloponnesus [Sparta] and Athens were both full of young men whose inexperience made them eager to take up arms.” - Thucydides
Peloponnesian War Fighting between the Greek city states Dragged on for 27 years Sparta invades Athens, PLAGUE kills 1/3 of population Sparta conquered Athens with the help of Persia Ended Athenian dominance in the Greek world map