10Mycenae Invaders who helped destroy Minoan civilization First Greek-speaking people of whom we have written recordSuccessful sea traders with wealthy warrior kingsBest remembered for their part in the Trojan War
18Polis Usually developed around a fort Covered a small area of land Most had a population of fewer than 10,000Only free adult males had citizenship rightsHad an agora, or marketplace
19Geography of GreeceMountainous, rugged land kept civilization divided into independent, often rivaling city-statesThe seas were vital link to the world outside. Greeks became skilled sailors and traders.Greeks carried ideas and culture wherever they went.
37AthensAthens symbolized freedom, art, and democracy. The city-state took its name from Athena, the goddess of wisdom and knowledge.Sparta’s strongest rival, wealthy and powerfulLimited democracySolon, a wise and trusted leader made many reformsLegislature developed later
38Daily life in Athens Economy based on trade Magnificent temples & public buildingsGreat value placed on literacy & educationEthics – deals with what is good and bad, moral dutyRhetoric – study of public speaking and debate
40Amphitheater in Athens Measures 80m in diameter and can hold 5,000 people. It was originally covered by a cedar roof. The orchestra and seating have all been restored so that the odeon can be used for concerts today.
42Persian Wars 500 B.C. Athens the wealthiest city-state Persian empire threatening borders, taking Greek city-states of IoniaAthens came Ionia’s aid when they rebelled against the PersiansIonians fell but Athens now had a reputation
44Darius I of PersiaSpartans throw a Persian envoy down a well
45Greek Hoplites. The warriors are shown in two attack positions, with both an overhand and underhand thrust.
46Marathon and more… “Remember the Athenians” Athenians triumph over Persians led by Darius at Marathonedsitement.neh.gov/Persian01_flash_page.aspDarius’ son Xerxes came back, defeated the Spartans (Battle of Thermopylae) and marched to AthensAthenians withdrew from the city and used their ships to destroy the Persian fleetForced Greeks to become more unifiededsitement.neh.gov/PersiaGreeceWars01.asp
47Delian LeagueAn alliance of city-states with Athens as leader
48Golden Age of Pericles 480 - 431 BC The years after the Persian Wars were a golden age for AthensPericles, a wise and skillful leader, helped the government become more democraticSet up a direct democracyThe Acropolis was rebuilt with beautiful statues and new templesGrowing resentment from the other city- states
49PericlesContemporary reconstruction of Athena. The original was made of gold and ivory over a wood frame, was 30 feet high, and was located in the main inner room of the Parthenon.
50“The Peloponnesus [Sparta] and Athens were both full of young men whose inexperience made them eager to take up arms.”- Thucydides
51Peloponnesian War Fighting between the Greek city states Dragged on for 27 yearsSparta invades Athens, PLAGUE kills 1/3 of populationSparta conquered Athens with the help of PersiaEnded Athenian dominance in the Greek worldmap