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CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME UNIT THREE. OLYMPICS Most famous sports festival – OLYMPIC Games Series of athletic competitions among city-states of Ancient.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME UNIT THREE. OLYMPICS Most famous sports festival – OLYMPIC Games Series of athletic competitions among city-states of Ancient."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME UNIT THREE

2 OLYMPICS Most famous sports festival – OLYMPIC Games Series of athletic competitions among city-states of Ancient Greece Games honored ZEUS {father of all Greek Gods/Goddesses} Games were held in OLYMPIA Records first kept track in 776 B.C. – Games ended in 394 A.D. {outlawed by the Romans} Held every four years (there were 292 Ancient Olympic Games) Basis for today’s modern day OLYMPIC GAMES

3 During the games - an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the games in safety Prizes for winners were wreaths of laurel leaves Olympics also featured religious celebrations and artistic competitions Statue of Zeus at Olympia was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world Running events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race, and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian

4 PERSIAN WARS The Persian wars were between GREECE and PERSIAN Empire Greeks lived in IONIA {located in Anatolia} – Persians conquer B.C. - Athens helps Ionians rebel against Persians Persians win but King Darius vows revenge on Athens In 490 B.C. the Persians with 25,000 men sailed across the AEGEAN sea and land at MARATHON, northeast of Athens -battle-of-marathon/

5 BATTLE AT MARATHON 10,000 Athenian Soldiers defeated the Persians WHY? Athenian fighting formation – PHALANX, better prepared/trained, better equipment/uniforms Persians lost 6,000 men; Athenians lost less than 200 men A young Athenian – PHEIDIPPIDES – ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to inform the city of the victory {According to legend Pheidippides then collapsed and died} This heroic act inspired the Marathon running race

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7 -first-olympics-revisited/

8 GREEK PHALANX FORMATION

9 BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAE In 480 B.C. Persians assemble ENORMOUS army King Darius had died succeeded by son – XERXES Greece was not unified to fight at this time Persians came to a narrow pass at THERMOPLYAE There 7000 Greeks, led by 300 Spartans stopped Persian advance for 3 days Spartans send the rest of the Greeks back to Athens – all 300 Spartans were killed

10 *Important – Spartans fierce RESISTANCE gave VALUABLE time to prepare for a decisive battle that would determine the outcome of the war. THEMISTOCLES – has Athenians evacuate the city – turn the war into a NAVAL battle Xerxes arrives in Athens – burns city {destroyed Parthenon} BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAE

11 The Greek victory at the battle of Salamis destroyed the Persian navy and forced Xerxes to retreat back to Asia. The final battle took place a year later in 479 B.C. when a full- strength Spartan led Greek army defeated the Persians at the battle of Plataea ending the Persian wars. END OF PERSIAN WARS

12 PERSIAN WEAPONS REVENGE IONIANS MARATHON VICTORY 26 XERXES SPARTANS 3 ATHENS NAVIES SALAMIS RETREAT GREEKS

13 GREEK PHILOSOPHERS After the Persian War many began to question values Greek Thinkers tried to use OBSERVATION and REASON to understand why things happened Greeks called these thinkers Philosophers “lovers of WISDOM” There were 3 famous Greek Philosophers: 1. Socrates 2. Plato 3. Aristotle

14 SOCRATES

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16 at-did-greek-philosophers-think-about- happiness/

17 THE DEATH OF SOCRATES

18 GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE After defeat of PERSIANS – Greece entered a “GOLDEN AGE” A Golden Age is: REACHING NEW HEIGHTS IN DRAMA, POETRY, ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY PERICLES {ruled Athens from 460 – 429 B.C.} leads the way in this “Golden Age”

19 GOALS OF PERICLES 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy – introduced DIRECT democracy {citizens rule DIRECTLY not through representatives – had to be a citizen – women, slaves, males under 18 were not} 2. Hold & Strengthen the Empire – helped organize the Delian League to protect Greece 3. GLORIFY Athens – best example – rebuilding of PARTHENON {23,000 foot building honoring goddess ATHENA}

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