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First Empires I.From States to Empires II.Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911-612 BCE III.Persian Empire, 559-331 BCE IDs: Forced Assyrianization, Ashur, Royal Road,

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Presentation on theme: "First Empires I.From States to Empires II.Neo-Assyrian Empire, 911-612 BCE III.Persian Empire, 559-331 BCE IDs: Forced Assyrianization, Ashur, Royal Road,"— Presentation transcript:

1 First Empires I.From States to Empires II.Neo-Assyrian Empire, BCE III.Persian Empire, BCE IDs: Forced Assyrianization, Ashur, Royal Road, eyes and ears

2 Empires: Argument Faced with the same problem of controlling a large multi-ethnic empire, the Neo-Assyrians tried to assimilate subject peoples by force, while the Persians used lenient multi-ethnic policies to attract the support of subject peoples.

3 I. From State to Empire A. Cultures  States (ca BCE)

4 States: Union of kingship & religion

5 Nomads  Charioteer elites in new states Problems for Kings: *Control of Conquered People

6 Control of Regional Elites Biggest problems of early kings: How to control regional elites (nobility), governors & army leaders

7 Differences between states and empires State Medium to large One ethnic group (or at most a few) Empire Very large (whole region) Many ethnic groups, societies, former states

8 II. World’s First Empire: Neo-Assyria, BCE A. Expansion Military Power B. Terror

9 C. Deportation & resettlement of subject populations Destroy identity  Forced “Assyrianization” Slave labor Remove trouble

10 D. Annual Appointment of Provincial Governors Tiglath Pileser III Abolished hereditary system Control from center King gives rewards to new elite

11 E. Ideology & Propaganda Divine destiny Ashur Holy war

12 F. Fall of Neo-Assyrian Empire

13 III. Persian Empire, BCE A.Conquest Cyrus the Great Darius I B. Leniancy

14 C. Multicultural Empire

15 D. Propaganda Representatives of Ethnic Groups Bringing Gifts to Persian King Reliefs on Staircase to Audience Hall in Persepolis Ca. 500 BCE

16 E. Administration Satraps Satrapy Eyes and Ears

17 Royal Road: unifying infrastructure (Susa to Sardis)

18 Persepolis

19 F. Ideology Divine kingship “King of kings” Ahura Mazda

20 Religion: Zoroastrianism Zoroaster, 6 th century BCE Ahura Mazda dualism Ahiram

21 Argument The Neo-Assyrians and the Persians had the same problems of controlling a large empire, but they used very different projects to solve those problems. The Neo-Assyrians relied on terror and compulsion, while the Persians used leniency and attraction.


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