Presentation on theme: " What are the major beliefs of Islam? What were the political, economic, and social effects of the spread of Islamic culture?"— Presentation transcript:
What are the major beliefs of Islam? What were the political, economic, and social effects of the spread of Islamic culture?
In the 5 th century, warfare between the Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted trade routes from East Asia. Trade from India and China shifted to sea routes connecting India with Arabia and the Red Sea. Cities and towns grew up near wells along the caravan routes that carried goods across the Arabian peninsula Mecca was one of the most important of these cities.
Founded in the 7 th century (A.D. 600s) By Mohammed Born in 570 A.D. A merchant and shepherd in Mecca Had a vision in which he was told to convert Arab tribes to believe in a single God, Allah (same God worshipped by Jews and Christians) Islam is the Arabic word for “submission” Within 100 years, it grew to control an area larger than the Roman Empire
Complete your religions chart by adding Islam Major beliefs – one God, the Five Pillars (confession of faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage) Holy book – Quran (Koran) Holy places – Mecca, Jerusalem, and their place of worship the mosque
Islam united the various Arab tribes with a common language (Arabic) and religion Arabs set out on a “holy war” or Jihad against non-believers. (about the same time the Byzantines and Persians were weakened from centuries of fighting each other) Created an empire from the Indus valley into North Africa and Eastern Europe and Spain
Caliph – “successor to Mohammed” After Mohammed died, new caliphs were chosen by a group of Muslim leaders Division arose over who caliphs should be Sunnis – followed the elected caliph Shiites – decided only descendants of Mohammed could be caliph The first true caliphate, The Umayyads, moved the capital to Damascus (Syria) The Abbasids took over the caliphate in 750 A.D., moved the capital to Baghdad (Iraq), and focused on trade instead of war.
Caliphs converted or enslaved people worshipping many gods Jews and Christians were treated with respect Non-Arabs had fewer rights at first, but eventually all Muslims were equal Jews and Christians had too pay a special tax and could not hold most offices
On the map provided, draw the boundaries for the spread of Islam (632-750) as found on page 197 in your text book. Create a key showing the Islamic territory in 632, and expansions (632-661, 661-750) and the Byzantine Empire in 750
A period of great advances in culture and technology Absorbed the cultural achievements of the Greeks, Romans, Persians, Jews, and Byzantines Controlled vast trading areas and served as a crossroads for trade (China and India Eastern Mediterranean and Africa) Arabic (the language of the Quran) became the language of literature, philosophy, and art
Caligraphy Astrolabe Carpets
The Seljuk Turks (conquerors from Central Asia) captured Baghdad and created a new Islamic empire. They converted to Islam Kept Baghdad as the capital By the 12th century, Muslims became engaged in a war with Christians for control of the Holy Land – The Crusades Christians took Jerusalem in 1099 Saladin recaptured Jerusalem (he remains a hero in the Islamic world today)
Captured Constantinople in 1453 A “Gunpowder Empire” located between Europe and Asia Interacted with both Eastern and Western cultures Reached its height under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent Conquered Egypt and N. Africa and parts of Eastern Europe Controlled much of the trade in the Mediterranean Sea Ottomans were defeated in 1571 by Spaniards and Venetians
Government: Ruled by the Sultan (all-powerful ruler) and his lavish court Capital was Istanbul (Constantinople) Well-organized and efficient government Assisted by a special army, The Janissaries (soldiers recruited and trained at childhood) Culture Sunni branch of Islam Recognized diversity Jews and Christians represented by own leaders and represented by their own laws and collected their own taxes
WHY DO YOU THINK SULEYMAN DESERVED THE TITLE “THE MAGNIFICENT”? GIVE THREE SPECIFIC REASONS WHY. WHAT DO YOU THINK SULEYMAN’S GREATEST WEAKNESS WAS?
Created their empire in Persia (1500’s) Shi’ite Muslims and opposed the Ottomans Maintained a separate identity from Turkish and Arab neighbors (continues today) Government Ruler was known as Shah Maintained control with strong standing armies Culture Known for its beautiful palace courts Decorated with fabulous carpets and paintings in miniature
Turkish Muslims invaded the northern plains of India in the 11 th and 12 th centuries (killing large numbers of Hindus) Created independent kingdoms in northern India called Sultanates Most important was the Sultanate of Delhi (1200) Ruled much of Northern and Central India for 320 years Did not adopt Indian ways Women wore veils and remained secluded (even though Hindu women did not) Delhi destroyed by the Mongol ruler Tamerlane in the 14 th century. Sultanate never fully recovered.
Babur (descendant of Tamerlane and Ghengis Khan) defeated the last sultan of Delhi to found the Mughal dynasty Had close ties to the Safavids Used guns to control their populations and fight their enemies
Most famous Mughal ruler (Babur’s grandson) Conquered Muslim and Hindu states uniting all Northern India under his rule Promoted religious tolerance Ended special Hindu taxes and used Hindu officials in government Divided empire into 12 provinces Local government was run by well-trained officials (enforced laws, collected taxes) Encouraged learning, painting, music, and literature
Akbar’s grandson Re-imposed taxes on Hindus and destroyed Hindu temples Many converted to Islam (some to avoid taxes, others from lower castes, to escape the caste system) Even more artistic and cultural achievements Built palaces, fortresses, and mosques Most famous was Taj Mahal (tomb for his wife) Combined Persian, Indian, and Islamic styles
New religion in Northern India Founder – interactions between Muslims and Hindus Major beliefs Reincarnation One God God can be known through meditation (a form of deep contemplation) Equality in the eyes of God Scriptures teach moderation (eat little, sleep little, talk little, consume little) No caste system Sikh men do not cut their hair (often wear turbans) Holy places – Temples and shrines (Golden Temple )