2The Big Questions: What are the major beliefs of Islam? What were the political, economic, and social effects of the spread of Islamic culture?
3Introduction:In the 5th century, warfare between the Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted trade routes from East Asia. Trade from India and China shifted to sea routes connecting India with Arabia and the Red Sea. Cities and towns grew up near wells along the caravan routes that carried goods across the Arabian peninsula Mecca was one of the most important of these cities.
5ISLAM: Founded in the 7th century (A.D. 600s) By Mohammed Born in 570 A.D.A merchant and shepherd in MeccaHad a vision in which he was told to convert Arab tribes to believe in a single God, Allah (same God worshipped by Jews and Christians)Islam is the Arabic word for “submission”Within 100 years, it grew to control an area larger than the Roman Empire
6Activity: Complete your religions chart by adding Islam Major beliefs – one God, the Five Pillars (confession of faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage)Holy book – Quran (Koran)Holy places – Mecca, Jerusalem, and their place of worship the mosque
7Spread of islamIslam united the various Arab tribes with a common language (Arabic) and religionArabs set out on a “holy war” or Jihad against non-believers. (about the same time the Byzantines and Persians were weakened from centuries of fighting each other)Created an empire from the Indus valley into North Africa and Eastern Europe and Spain
8The split in Islam (the Caliphates) Caliph – “successor to Mohammed”After Mohammed died, new caliphs were chosen by a group of Muslim leadersDivision arose over who caliphs should beSunnis – followed the elected caliphShiites – decided only descendants of Mohammed could be caliphThe first true caliphate, The Umayyads, moved the capital to Damascus (Syria)The Abbasids took over the caliphate in 750 A.D., moved the capital to Baghdad (Iraq), and focused on trade instead of war.
9Characteristics of Caliphates Caliphs converted or enslaved people worshipping many godsJews and Christians were treated with respectNon-Arabs had fewer rights at first, but eventually all Muslims were equalJews and Christians had too pay a special tax and could not hold most offices
10Activity:On the map provided, draw the boundaries for the spread of Islam ( ) as found on page 197 in your text book.Create a key showing the Islamic territory in 632, and expansions ( , ) and the Byzantine Empire in 750
11GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CULTURE A period of great advances in culture and technologyAbsorbed the cultural achievements of the Greeks, Romans, Persians, Jews, and ByzantinesControlled vast trading areas and served as a crossroads for trade (China and India <-> Eastern Mediterranean and Africa)Arabic (the language of the Quran) became the language of literature, philosophy, and art
13Changes in the 11th Century The Seljuk Turks (conquerors from Central Asia) captured Baghdad and created a new Islamic empire.They converted to IslamKept Baghdad as the capitalBy the 12th century, Muslims became engaged in a war with Christians for control of the Holy Land – The CrusadesChristians took Jerusalem in 1099Saladin recaptured Jerusalem (he remains a hero in the Islamic world today)
14Islamic influence in Post-Classical Asia…the Gunpowder empires
15The Ottoman Empire Captured Constantinople in 1453 A “Gunpowder Empire” located between Europe and AsiaInteracted with both Eastern and Western culturesReached its height under the reign of Suleiman the MagnificentConquered Egypt and N. Africa and parts of Eastern EuropeControlled much of the trade in the Mediterranean SeaOttomans were defeated in 1571 by Spaniards and Venetians
16More about the ottomans… Government:Ruled by the Sultan (all-powerful ruler) and his lavish courtCapital was Istanbul (Constantinople)Well-organized and efficient governmentAssisted by a special army, The Janissaries (soldiers recruited and trained at childhood)CultureSunni branch of IslamRecognized diversityJews and Christians represented by own leaders and represented by their own laws and collected their own taxes
17WHAT DO YOU THINK SULEYMAN’S GREATEST WEAKNESS WAS? Left SideWHY DO YOU THINK SULEYMAN DESERVED THE TITLE “THE MAGNIFICENT”? GIVE THREE SPECIFIC REASONS WHY.WHAT DO YOU THINK SULEYMAN’S GREATEST WEAKNESS WAS?
18The Safavid Empire Created their empire in Persia (1500’s) Shi’ite Muslims and opposed the OttomansMaintained a separate identity from Turkish and Arab neighbors (continues today)GovernmentRuler was known as ShahMaintained control with strong standing armiesCultureKnown for its beautiful palace courtsDecorated with fabulous carpets and paintings in miniature
19Muslim invasions in India Turkish Muslims invaded the northern plains of India in the 11th and 12th centuries (killing large numbers of Hindus)Created independent kingdoms in northern India called SultanatesMost important was the Sultanate of Delhi (1200)Ruled much of Northern and Central India for 320 yearsDid not adopt Indian waysWomen wore veils and remained secluded (even though Hindu women did not)Delhi destroyed by the Mongol ruler Tamerlane in the 14th century. Sultanate never fully recovered.
20The Mughal Empire ( )Babur (descendant of Tamerlane and Ghengis Khan) defeated the last sultan of Delhi to found the Mughal dynastyHad close ties to the SafavidsUsed guns to control their populations and fight their enemies
21Akbar the Great Most famous Mughal ruler (Babur’s grandson) Conquered Muslim and Hindu states uniting all Northern India under his rulePromoted religious toleranceEnded special Hindu taxes and used Hindu officials in governmentDivided empire into 12 provincesLocal government was run by well-trained officials (enforced laws, collected taxes)Encouraged learning, painting, music, and literature
22Shah Jahan Re-imposed taxes on Hindus and destroyed Hindu temples Akbar’s grandsonRe-imposed taxes on Hindus and destroyed Hindu templesMany converted to Islam (some to avoid taxes, others from lower castes, to escape the caste system)Even more artistic and cultural achievementsBuilt palaces, fortresses, and mosquesMost famous was Taj Mahal (tomb for his wife)Combined Persian, Indian, and Islamic styles
25Sikhism (add to religions chart) New religion in Northern IndiaFounder – interactions between Muslims and HindusMajor beliefsReincarnationOne GodGod can be known through meditation (a form of deep contemplation)Equality in the eyes of GodScriptures teach moderation (eat little, sleep little, talk little, consume little)No caste systemSikh men do not cut their hair (often wear turbans)Holy places – Temples and shrines (Golden Temple)