Presentation on theme: "NEXT The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700 Three great Muslim powers—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires—emerge between 1300 and 1600. By 1700 all three."— Presentation transcript:
NEXT The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700 Three great Muslim powers—the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires—emerge between 1300 and 1600. By 1700 all three were in decline.
NEXT The Muslim World Expands, 1300–1700 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire CASE STUDY: Cultural Blending The Mughal Empire in India
NEXT Section 1 The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire The Ottomans establish a Muslim empire that combine many cultures and lasted for more than 600 years.
NEXT Turks Move into Byzantium The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire Turkish Warriors Many Turks live in Anatolia, on edge of Byzantine Empire Many see themselves as ghazis—warriors who fight for Islam Osman Establishes a State From 1300 to 1326, Osman, successful ghazi, builds state in Anatolia Europeans call him Othman and followers Ottomans Ottomans win battles because they use muskets and cannons Successors expand state through alliances and land buying SECTION 1 Continued...
NEXT Osman Establishes a State Orkhan, Osman’s son, declares himself sultan— overlord In 1361, Turks conquer Adrianople Ottomans rule fairly over conquered peoples continued Turks Move into Byzantium Timur the Lame Halts Expansion Timur the Lame—Tamerlane—rises to power in Central Asia Timur defeats Ottomans in 1402, burning Baghdad SECTION 1
NEXT Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion SECTION 1 Murad II Murad II begins expansion Mehmed II Conquers Constantinople Murad’s son, Mehmed II, conquers Constantinople in 1453 Opens city to Jews, Christians, and Muslims and rebuilds Ottomans Take Islam’s Holy Cities In 1512, Selim the Grim, Mehmed’s grandson, comes to power He defeats Persian Safavids and pushes into North Africa Conquers Mecca, Medina, and Cairo: important Muslim cities
NEXT Suleyman the Lawgiver SECTION 1 A Great Ruler Suleyman the Lawgiver, Selim’s son, rules from 1520 to 1566 The Empire Reaches Its Limits Suleyman conquers Belgrade (1521) and Rhodes (1522) Ottomans control eastern Mediterranean Turks take North African coastline, control inland trade routes Suleyman’s forces advance to Vienna By 1526, Ottoman Empire is the largest in the world Continued...
NEXT Highly Structured Social Organization Suleyman creates law code, reduces bureaucracy, simplifies taxation Army uses devshirme—drafts boys from conquered lands Trains 30,000 elite soldiers—janissaries—loyal only to the sultan Jews and Christians allowed to practice own religion continued Suleyman the Lawgiver Cultural Flowering Suleyman’s broad interests lead to flourishing of arts, learning Sinan, brilliant architect, designs magnificent Mosque of Suleyman SECTION 1
NEXT The Empire Declines Slowly SECTION 1 Gradual Fall Suleyman kills one son and exiles another Third son inherits throne but rules weakly Later sultans kill their brothers and leave their sons uneducated Long line of weak sultans leads to empire’s eventual fall
NEXT The Safavid Empire produce a rich and complex blended culture in Persia. Section 2 Cultural Blending CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire
NEXT Patterns of Cultural Blending Cultural Blending Cultural Blending in Persia Between16th and 18th centuries a Shi’ite Muslim dynasty ruled Persia Safavid Empire—Shi’ite Muslim dynasty from 16th to 18th centuries SECTION 2 Causes of Cultural Blending Changes occur through migration, conquest, trade, or religion Results of Cultural Blending Changes in language, religion, government, use of technology Racial and ethnic blending, intermarriage Cultural styles adapted into arts and architecture CASE STUDY: The Safavid Empire
NEXT The Safavids Build an Empire Safavid Origins Begins as religious order named for founder Safavids concentrate on building powerful military SECTION 2 Isma’il Conquers Persia Fourteen-year-old Isma’il conquers Iran by 1451 Takes title of shah—king Makes Shi’a Islam official religion; kills Sunnis Son, Tahmasp, greatly expands empire
NEXT A Safavid Golden Age Abbas the Great Shah Abbas—Abbas the Great—takes throne in 1587 SECTION 2 Reforms Helps create a thriving Safavid culture Reforms military and government; brings in Christian trade A New Capital Esfahan—new capital—is one of world’s most beautiful cities Art Works Chinese artisans blend Chinese and Persian styles Carpets Carpet weaving becomes national industry
NEXT The Dynasty Declines Quickly The Safavid Empire Weakens Abbas kills and blinds his ablest sons Safi, Abbas’s incompetent grandson, leads to empire’s decline By 1722, the empire is losing land to the Ottomans and Afghans Nadir Shah Afshar expands the empire, but it falls apart in 1747 SECTION 2
Section 3 The Mughal Empire in India The Mughal Empire brings Turks, Persians, and Indians together in a vast empire. NEXT
Early History of the Mughals The Mughal Empire in India Mongol Invaders Mughals, or Mongols, invade northwestern India SECTION 3 Conflict Muslims and Hindus fight for almost 300 years In 1000, loose empire of Turkish warlords—Delhi Sultanate—forms Delhi Sultanate Sultans rule from Delhi between 13th and 16th centuries Timur the Lame destroys Delhi in 1398
NEXT Early History of the Mughals Babur Founds an Empire Babur becomes king of small land in Central Asia at age 11 Is dethroned and driven south into India Army conquers much of northern India, forming Mughal Empire Son Humayun loses most of the territory Babur conquered Babur’s grandson succeeds Humayan SECTION 3
NEXT Akbar’s Golden Age Babur’s Grandson Akbar—“Greatest One”— rules India from 1556 to 1605 A Military Conqueror Akbar uses cannons; names native Indians as officers SECTION 3 Continued... A Liberal Ruler Akbar allows religious freedom and abolishes tax on non-Muslims Akbar allows all people a chance to serve in high government office Hindu finance minister develops better tax plan; income grows Akbar gives land to his officials, then reclaims it when they die
NEXT A Flowering of Culture Many cultures blend, mixing art, education, politics, and language New languages like Hindi and Urdu emerge continued Akbar’s Golden Age The Arts and Literature Book illustrations, called miniatures, flourish Hindu literature reemerges during Akbar’s rule SECTION 3 Architecture New architectural style named for Akbar develops
NEXT Akbar’s Successors Jahangir and Nur Jahan Akbar’s son, Jahangir, allows wife Nur Jahan to control government Nur Jahan appoints her father prime minister Nur Jahan favors son Khusrau over other sons Khusrau rebels, supported by Sikhs, nonviolent religious group Sikhs become targets of Mughal hatred SECTION 3 Continued...
NEXT Shah Jahan Shah Jahan—Jahangir’s son and successor, marries Persian princess Assassinates all competitors for throne His wife dies while giving birth to her 14th child in 1631 Taj Mahal—huge marble tomb Shah Jahan builds for his wife Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world continued Akbar’s Successors SECTION 3 Continued...
NEXT The People Suffer People suffer paying for wars and monuments Shah Jahan’s third son—Aurangzeb—imprisons father and takes over continued Akbar’s Successors Aurangzeb’s Reign Rules between 1658 and 1707; expands empire to its largest Strictly enforces Islamic law and attempts to get rid of Hindus Hindus rebel and Sikhs become militant Levies oppressive taxes on Hindus, causing more rebellion SECTION 3
NEXT The Empire’s Decline and Decay The Mughal Empire Crumbles Over 2 million people die of famine while Aurangzeb wages war Emperor becomes a figurehead; empire breaks into separate states Meanwhile, traders arrive from England, Holland, France, Portugal European traders gain key ports SECTION 3
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