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The Abbasid Caliphate Rise and Fall Cultural Achievement Push Towards Southeast Asia.

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Presentation on theme: "The Abbasid Caliphate Rise and Fall Cultural Achievement Push Towards Southeast Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Abbasid Caliphate Rise and Fall Cultural Achievement Push Towards Southeast Asia

2 Spread of Islam at Dawn of Abbasid Caliphate

3 Height of Abbasid Power

4 Abbasid Caliphate ( ) Early Years Spread Islam throughout Africa, Parts of Europe, Asia Consolidated power, supressed enemies, adopted Sunni Islam Moved Capital to Bagdhad, Wazirs made laws for entire empire Conversion incentive: no jiyza, government and military roles, better school Trade networks from Spain to Southern China –Furniture, carpets, jewelry, tapistries Cultural flowering, blend of Hellenistic, Persian Indian, Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian traditions of scholarship –Math, science, philosophy, astronomy, medicine, ethics Slave labor common

5 Political Decline Political Disorganization Bad Caliphs Al- Mahdi, Al Rashid, – extravagant, corrupt, untrustworthy (Thousand and one Nights) Dependent on Persian advisors Relied on slave mercenary armies, 70,000 strong by 833 CE, dictated Caliph power Heavy taxes on peasants, villages destroyed, food rebellion, Shi’a uprising Buyids – powerful Persian family take Bagdhad in 945 Caliphs become puppet of Buyid Sultan 1045 – Seljuk Turks take power from Buyids, rule Abbasid Caliphate, put down Shi’a Uprisings, Spread to Anatolia (will find Ottoman Empire) 1220 – Chinngis Khan raids Turko-Persian Kingdom 1258 – Bagdhad sacked by Mongols, last Abbasid Caliph Killed

6 Cultural Flowering Expanding trade networks and intellectual creativity Artisans – design palaces, mosques, Persian rugs Persian Literature –Arabic is language of religion and law, Persian of creative writing – Historical Epics, Shah-Nama, illustrated, performed Math and Science –Combined pre-existing knowledge with new innovations –Al- Razi – chemistry and minerals, physician –Al-Biruni – specific weight of 18 Minerals –Corrected Greek algebra and geometry – sine, cosine, tangent Health – hospitals and medical exams Astronomy – astrolabe, mapping, constellations Machinery – silk weaving, paper making, map making Religion –Al-Ghazali fusion of Greek philosophy and Quaran –Sufis – mystics, wandering, popular, closer relationship with Allah, “find Allah in all things”

7 Islam moves to Southeast Asia

8 INDIA First Wave Muslim Invaders began to enter the Indian Subcontinent in the 7 th Century Conflict between Islam and Hindu beliefs –Exclusive worship vs. many deities –Transcendent God vs. idol worship –All equal vs. caste system Northern India –Collapse of Gupta Empire in 604 –Harsha, successful ruler, embraces Buddhism, unites most of India –Dies in 646, leaves no successor, first Muslim traders arrive in 711 –Muhammad in Qasm gains Sind, in Western India for Ummayad Empire Cultural Fusion –Indian Number system –Indian physicians go to Bagdhad –Chess, Indian food, dress, architecture arrive in Abbasid Territory –Arab colonies in Mulabar and Bengal

9 INDIA, Second Wave 926 – Seljuk Turks move toward India Muhammad of Ghur – takes most of Northern and Central India –Capital at Delhi, ruled by Muslims for 300 Years Conversion? –Sufi mystics travel along trade routs –Build mosques and schools, form militias, welcome lower caste members –Convert many Buddhists –Muslim rulers absorb Hindu practices, alternate caste system Hindu Opposition –Higher caste Hindus oppose Muslim conversions –Bhaki – Hindu cults to reach supernatural – popular rituals, dances, festivals –Stemmed Muslim conversion –Brahman encourage Hindu disunity with Islam

10 Southeast Asia Muslim Merchants and Sufi mystics travel to Southeast Asian Islands from India Win convertsin Java by adopting animist, Buddhist, and Hindu traditions Sumatra, Malayan Peninsula, Java, center for trade between China, India, Europe (SPICES) 8 th Century, Muslims dominate East Indian Trade 13 th Century – Java Buddhist rule collapses Malacca, Demake, Philipines, all convert Conversion easier along trade ports Sufi Mystics –Establish schools and mosques –Allow pre-Islamic customs, puppet plays based on Brahman age, worship of old deities and spirits, Hindu-Buddhist symbols worn by Muslim rulers

11 Lotus Flower – purity Endless knot – harmony Pair of Fish – happiness Victory Banner- Victory Wheel – Knowledge Treasure vase – wealth Conch shell – Buddhist thoughts Parasol – crown, protection


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