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The Coming of Islam to South Asia Chapter 7 (part 3 of 4)

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1 The Coming of Islam to South Asia Chapter 7 (part 3 of 4)

2 India had long history of being invaded India had more material culture than invaders, so most invaders wanted to assimilate Most invaders converted to one of the 2 major religions at the time in India: Hinduism or Buddhism

3 Muslims Arrive In India (600s) First time Indians invaded by civilization as advanced, or more advanced, than the Indians

4 Islam v. Hindu Islam Belief in one God (Allah) Socially egalitarian – everyone considered equals More rigid than Hinduism Hinduism Idol worship Socially hierarchy through Caste system More tolerant than Islam, able to adapt

5 At 1 st, interactions b/t Hindus and Muslims was violent But quickly became peaceful, and most interaction was peaceful Muslims actually used Hindus (locals) to rule areas for them

6 India Before Muslim Invasion Guptas fell in the 400s Regional dynasties fought for control next 200 years

7 Harsha Builds an Empire Leader of local dynasty, expanded it and built largest empire in India since the Gupta Harsha’s empire had long period of peace and prosperity –built roads and hospitals Kannauj – capital of empire, had big walls, huge homes, and garden with pools

8 Harsha’s Death Harsha died in 646, and the kingdom fell apart due to internal fighting India was no longer united, and that opened way for Muslim invasions, beginning in 711

9 The Spark Arab trading ship was attacked near India (attackers from Indian state of Sind) Muslims respond and attack and conquer Sind, led by Muhammad ibn Qasim Muhammad ibn Qasim

10 Islam Brings Little Change to India – At First There was little effort by Muslims to convert Indians to Islam (remember, this is during Umayyad period) Muslims respected the Brahman caste, and local leaders (Hindus) used by Muslims to help rule Muslims were tolerant of local religions and promised low taxes, so many Indians did not resist their rule

11 Indian Culture Reaches the Middle East Arabs learn algebra and geometry from India Indian doctors brought to Baghdad to run hospitals The book is a collection of stories, many based on Indian tales Arabian Nights is written Chess (an Indian game) becomes popular in Middle East Arabic numerals really Hindu numerals Astronomy equipment (astrolabe) copies and improved

12 Arabs (Muslims) Move to India and Assimilate to Indian Culture They wore Indian clothing Leaders rode elephants like Hindu leaders They ate Indian foods

13 Other than Sindh, Muslims took very little land in India 962 – A 2 nd wave of invasions by Muslims into India occurs, and Muslim rule gets stronger

14 Mahmud of Ghazni Turkish slave and leader of Afghanistan Conquered much of India to spread Islam and gain wealth Began 200 year Muslim rule in north India

15 Muslim ruler who took over after Mahmud of Ghazni assassinated in 1206 Next 300 years, Muslims ruled north and central India Made Delhi the capital, show Muslims wanted central India too Able to conquer almost all of north India Muhammad of Ghur

16 Muslim Control of India under Muhammad of Ghur Leaders were called Sultans of Delhi Built large armies with cavalries on elephants, like local Hindus Built large bureaucracy,, and tried making money off the people Muslims used Hindus to help rule, so never got too powerful

17 Most Indians not forced to convert, and few in areas that Muslims ruled converted (shows it wasn’t focus of Muslims) Islam spread by merchants and sufis, and there was a lot of intermarriage, which led to people converting Many converts became Muslim to avoid paying extra taxes, such as the tax on non-believers (jizya) Most converts came from Buddhism, or from low- caste Hindus who liked that Islam preached egalitarianism (equality) Conversions

18 Islam Had Little Impact on Hinduism While many converted to Islam, Islam had little impact on Hinduism High-caste Hindus disliked Muslims (they were corrupting minds of low-caste Hindus) Mostly Hindus and Muslims lived separately and were not friends

19 Muslims In India Adopt Hierarchy System Recent Muslims arrivals High-caste Hindu converts Artisans and merchants Low-caste Hindu converts Muslims become divided along caste lines Example of why Indians thought Muslims would absorb into the culture and not be threat

20 Women’s Status Decline as Muslims Come to India

21 Muslims Adopt Some Hindu Practices That Are Bad for Women Marrying at young age Forbid widows from remarrying Sati – widows jump into fire of cremated husband

22 Hindus Realize Muslims A Threat Despite this, Hindus saw Muslims were not going to adopt Hinduism, Muslims in India adopted much of the culture Hindus realize that Muslims pose a threat, unlike past invaders who were assimilated into Indian culture

23 Kabir Muslim mystic who downplayed the difference b/t Islam and Hinduism, but efforts like his usually unsuccessful in uniting the 2 religions

24 Bhakti Bhakti = Hindu cults, membership open to all (including women and untouchables) that were very popular Bhakti cults so popular that many didn’t convert to Islam Used dances and even drugs to reach intoxification needed for salvation

25 Famous Hindu poet Mira Bai Showed openness of Bhakti cults to women

26 Hindus and Muslims Remain Apart Brahmans saw Muslims as threat and denounced them Hindu mystics tried to re-convert Indians back to Hinduism Muslim ulama rejected attempts like Kabir’s to fuse the 2 religions, remain rigid Despite many Indians being ruled by Muslims, most Indians don’t convert to Islam Indians believed Muslims would eventually be absorbed into Hinduism

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