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North America Territorial Dynamics.

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Presentation on theme: "North America Territorial Dynamics."— Presentation transcript:

1 North America Territorial Dynamics

2 I. U.S. Core and Peripheries
A. Main core of the US – Main core of the world Northeast + Manufacturing Belt Political & economic core of US Power 45% of industrial jobs Megalopolis Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington D.C. #1 world gathering of political, economic, financial & cultural powers Rust Belt Crisis of traditional heavy industry automobile industry in Detroit, textiles Industrial redevelopment Pittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo

3 B. Growing integrated periphery
Sun Belt Oil deposits, high technology, aerospace, robotics, biotechnologies Very Attractive & integrated periphery Regions of major growth Major cities & high tech industries Silicon Valley in San Francisco area Silicon Beach in Southern California Silicon Prairie in Texas Cascadia around Seattle Revitalized old south tourism (e.g. Miami) new technologies (Atlanta, Research Triangle Park)

4 The Sun Belt and Population Growth Trends 2000-2010

5 C. Margins of US territory used by the core
Corn Belt and Great Plains: Agro-industrial core of the US and breadbasket of the world Rocky Mountains, natural areas (National Parks) Low density of population Tourism, exploitation of natural resources, energy Remote States: Hawaii (tourism & tropical agriculture) Alaska (oil deposits and geostrategic location)

6 II. Territorial Dynamics which demonstrate US world power
US power concentrated in urban areas World/global cities, urban core of the world NYC, LA, Chicago Major metropolises with national or international influence Washington, D.C., New megalopolises in progress Attracting millions of inhabitants & diverse economic activities (service sectors & R&D development) Los Angeles/San Diego ; Seattle/Vancouver; Dallas/Houston

7 2 most important changes in North American city models
Inner cities that were once reserved for business and a ring of the poorest-quality housing are being “revived.” Suburbs have begun to take on the roles more typically associated with the CBDs Urban sprawl = technoburbs

8 Revitalization of business & residential areas of urban centers of US cities in late 20th century
Economic factors Expansion of service sector, quaternary sector, research facilities Growth in small businesses – residential districts surrounding city core Demand for housing in downtown & inner-city neighborhoods Demographic factors New household forms : DINKS, yuppies, nontraditional households Urban policy Govt/non-profit orgs to revitalize central cities through public policies and incentives City investment policies/tax incentives Public-private partnerships Historic preservation Sense of place Emotional attachment to central-city locations based on cultural amenities, landscape features, lifestyle factors Video: Dismantling Urban Highways/Reimagining the Commons: Philadelphia 1’38

9 B. Interfaces open the USA to the world
Main maritime interfaces w/ dynamic ports San Francisco, Houston, Miami, NYC Flows of capital, goods & workers on dynamic cross-border areas Mexamerica and the maquiladoras Main Street Cascadia Major intl airports (hubs) What are the 8 major hubs? LA, Phoenix, Dallas/Ft Worth, Miami, O’Hare, JFK, Philadelphia, Washington Dulles, Charlotte Douglas Intl Internal migration flows (labor force & capital) Strengthen southern periphery (push & pull factors) External migration flows (immigration) strengthen the Sun Belt (push & pull factors)

10 C. Regional and global integration of the US
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) Dynamic economic exchanges benefiting the US Main waterways linking the US to rest of world Mississippi, Great Lakes & St Lawrence River Main intl flows w/ Triad Eastern Asia & Western Europe

11 Part II Brazil in South America

12 Organization of Territory
In Brazil

13 II. USA and Brazil: global role dynamic areas
Video: Brazil’s Rising Star 60 minutes

14 A. Strong insertion in the global economy
Brazil and the U.S. are two major agricultural and industrial powers Except Vale and Petrobras, few Brazilian firms compete against American ones US firms dominate on the world stage: Agro-food business (Cargill, Kraft Foods), IT (Microsoft, IMB, Apple), petroleum (Exxon, Mobil), pharmaceutical (Pfizer)

15 1. Both countries possess a vast domestic market which stimulates the service sector
Unbeatable superiority of US firms in several industries: insurance (AIG) retail (Walmart) entertainment (Time Warner, Walt Disney) Rapidly evolving economic sectors in Brazil rising standard of living emergence of a strong middle class

16 2. Brazilian Growth is much more sustained than the U.S.’
Mostly due to flows of FDI 1st trade partner with Brazil is China 1st foreign investor = China $30 B in 2010 vs 5 B in the U.S. Despite this, Brazil ranks only 21st as global exporter of merchandise

17 B. Political-military influence very unbalanced
1. American power based on an enormous military-industrial complex Largest military budget in world ($600 B/yr) U.S. Military force twice the size of Brazil’s Global military deployment by the U.S. Plays the role of the world police Often denounced as imperialistic Brazilian political cartoonist: Latuff 2011 Title: Obama arrives in Rio Bubble: Where’s the petroleum?

18 2. Brazil’s Political Weight is largely inferior to the U.S.
Brazil’s diplomatic influence on the world stage remains very low Despite Brazil’s recent extension of its embassies network Despite sending the largest contingent of UN peacekeeping forces to Haiti

19 3. Brazil is self-proclaimed political spokesperson of the South
Former president Lula activated his South-South solidarity with emerging and Portuguese-speaking countries WTO: Lula criticized protectionism of Northern countries Brazil has evolved from net receiver of development aid to net giver BUT Brazilian aid remains much inferior to that of the U.S.

20 C. Cultural Americanization (Soft Power)
US has initiated cultural models which are spread worldwide Malls, fast-food, mainstream culture (cinema, TV series, social media) characterize the American model of mass consumption Based on the “American dream”, the American way of Life attracts the largest immigrant population in the world

21 1. Brazil unable to rival U.S. cultural domination
Brazil great producers of TV series exported in more than 130 countries (primarily Eastern Europe and Middle East) Video: Trailer Avenida Brazil Brazilian culture has reduced impact due to lack of Portuguese speakers on world stage

22 2. Cultural hegemony of Brazil is more regional than global
Main media group in Latin America : Globo Television, cinema, press Brazil’s ambitions are planetary - organizing international sporting events Football World Cup in 2014 The Olympic Games in 2016 (Rio de Janeiro)

23 D. U.S., Brazil: Territories which reflect their power
1. 2 immense territories but unequally controlled Surface area of US 9.8 million km² Surface area of Brazil 8.5 million km² 15-17 times the size of metropolitan France Major challenge: transportation networks New York & Sao Paulo highest rail traffic in world Brazil: air traffic more than doubled from 2004 to 2010 but planes used less often than U.S. despite long distances

24 2. Metropolises, mirrors of power in North & South America
Main metropolises in Brazil & the U.S. along the coastline Historical Populating of both countries from the coastline Similar urbanization rate (Brazil: 87% US: 82%) Cities of the American Sun Belt (Phoenix, Dallas, Las Vegas) and those of the Northwest of Brazil (Manaus, Fortaleza, Brasilia) have grown the most rapidly

25 Cities at the Heart of Power
Concentration of political functions (Brasilia, Washington) Financial functions (stock markets of New York, Chicago & Sao Paulo) Research Poles Silicon Valley & San Francisco Amazon Basin (earth sciences, biodiversity) & Minas Gerais Manufacturing Tourism (Miami and Rio de Janeiro tourist spots attracting global population)

26 10 Largest Metropolises in the U.S. and Brazil
City Population (millions of inhabitants) Sao Paulo 19.9 New York 19 Los Angeles 12.9 Rio de Janeiro 11.5 Chicago 9.6 Dallas-Fort Worth 6.4 Philadelphia 6 Houston 5.9 Miami 5.5 Washington, D.C.

27 Metropolization: merging American & Brazilian urban models
Brazilian cities increasingly resemble American metropolis models Organized around a Central Business District Concentrates the functions of power Phenomenon of urban sprawl Video Ted Talks: Eduardo Paes - Mayor of Rio de Janeiro - The Future of Cities, March 2012, 12”21

28 Sao Paulo 2,000 migrants arrive per week! Population: 20 million
Rapid urbanisation causes overcrowding 2,000 migrants arrive per week! High birth rate and lowering death rate (Rostow stg. 3) Internal rural to urban migration mainly from the poor NE region of Brazil. Pull factors of Sao Paulo 50% of industry is clustered in & around Sao Paulo Manufacturing (vehicles, machinery, textiles & shoes) Also iron ore is found around Sao Paulo Booming construction industry Many businesses including coffee exports   Improved roads & rail communication have encouraged migration

29 Impacts of Urbanization on People & the environment
creation of large slums or ‘Favelas’

30 Characteristics of Squatter Cities
Housing materials are collected from available resources, e.g. corrugated tin Little sanitation No running water No cooking facilities Illegal hookup to electricity, if any No political voice Lack of social services

31 Spatial Distribution of Favelas
On the periphery of the cities in LDCs around the world. In Europe and Latin America the rich choose to live in the culturally-rich inner city, the opposite is sometimes true in North American cities

32 3. Other Aspects in Common
Both Countries populated by Pioneers Highly religious culture but little religious conflict Rich natural resources exploited Energy Brazil highly dependent on hydroelectric power – 80% Brazil developing wind energy + biofuels Thanks to recent oil reserves discovered offshore, Brazil is self-sufficient in petroleum unlike the U.S.

33 4. Risk Management less effective in Brazil than the U.S.
Brazilians vulnerable to tropical storms Flooding killed a thousand people near Rio in 2011 Southeast of the US is particularly exposed to cyclones, tornadoes and flooding by the Mississippi

34 Homework U.S. “croquis” due March 18th (see blog for blank map and legend) Reading Homework (texts on blog) Measure of America Quick Facts 2014 Detroit Rust Belt 2 Americas: Brazil vs. US Brazil takes off Brazil’s Future

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