2 I. U.S. Core and Peripheries A. Main core of the US – Main core of the worldNortheast + Manufacturing BeltPolitical & economic core of US Power45% of industrial jobsMegalopolisBoston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington D.C.#1 world gathering of political, economic, financial & cultural powersRust BeltCrisis of traditional heavy industryautomobile industry in Detroit, textilesIndustrial redevelopmentPittsburg, Cleveland, Buffalo
3 B. Growing integrated periphery Sun BeltOil deposits, high technology, aerospace, robotics, biotechnologiesVery Attractive & integrated peripheryRegions of major growthMajor cities & high tech industriesSilicon Valley in San Francisco areaSilicon Beach in Southern CaliforniaSilicon Prairie in TexasCascadia around SeattleRevitalized old southtourism (e.g. Miami)new technologies (Atlanta, Research Triangle Park)
4 The Sun Belt and Population Growth Trends 2000-2010
5 C. Margins of US territory used by the core Corn Belt and Great Plains:Agro-industrial core of the US and breadbasket of the worldRocky Mountains, natural areas (National Parks)Low density of populationTourism, exploitation of natural resources, energyRemote States:Hawaii (tourism & tropical agriculture)Alaska (oil deposits and geostrategic location)
6 II. Territorial Dynamics which demonstrate US world power US power concentrated in urban areasWorld/global cities, urban core of the worldNYC, LA, ChicagoMajor metropolises with national or international influenceWashington, D.C.,New megalopolises in progressAttracting millions of inhabitants & diverse economic activities (service sectors & R&D development)Los Angeles/San Diego ; Seattle/Vancouver; Dallas/Houston
7 2 most important changes in North American city models Inner cities that were once reserved for business and a ring of the poorest-quality housing are being “revived.”Suburbs have begun to take on the roles more typically associated with the CBDsUrban sprawl = technoburbs
8 Revitalization of business & residential areas of urban centers of US cities in late 20th century Economic factorsExpansion of service sector, quaternary sector, research facilitiesGrowth in small businesses – residential districts surrounding city coreDemand for housing in downtown & inner-city neighborhoodsDemographic factorsNew household forms : DINKS, yuppies, nontraditional householdsUrban policyGovt/non-profit orgs to revitalize central cities through public policies and incentivesCity investment policies/tax incentivesPublic-private partnershipsHistoric preservationSense of placeEmotional attachment to central-city locations based on cultural amenities, landscape features, lifestyle factorsVideo: Dismantling Urban Highways/Reimagining the Commons: Philadelphia 1’38
9 B. Interfaces open the USA to the world Main maritime interfaces w/ dynamic portsSan Francisco, Houston, Miami, NYCFlows of capital, goods & workers on dynamic cross-border areasMexamerica and the maquiladorasMain StreetCascadiaMajor intl airports (hubs) What are the 8 major hubs?LA, Phoenix, Dallas/Ft Worth, Miami, O’Hare, JFK, Philadelphia, Washington Dulles, Charlotte Douglas IntlInternal migration flows (labor force & capital)Strengthen southern periphery (push & pull factors)External migration flows (immigration) strengthen the Sun Belt (push & pull factors)
10 C. Regional and global integration of the US NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)Dynamic economic exchanges benefiting the USMain waterways linking the US to rest of worldMississippi, Great Lakes & St Lawrence RiverMain intl flows w/ TriadEastern Asia & Western Europe
13 II. USA and Brazil: global role dynamic areas Video: Brazil’s Rising Star 60 minutes
14 A. Strong insertion in the global economy Brazil and the U.S. are two major agricultural and industrial powersExcept Vale and Petrobras, few Brazilian firms compete against American onesUS firms dominate on the world stage:Agro-food business (Cargill, Kraft Foods),IT (Microsoft, IMB, Apple),petroleum (Exxon, Mobil),pharmaceutical (Pfizer)
15 1. Both countries possess a vast domestic market which stimulates the service sector Unbeatable superiority of US firms in several industries:insurance (AIG)retail (Walmart)entertainment (Time Warner, Walt Disney)Rapidly evolving economic sectors in Brazilrising standard of livingemergence of a strong middle class
16 2. Brazilian Growth is much more sustained than the U.S.’ Mostly due to flows of FDI1st trade partner with Brazil is China1st foreign investor = China$30 B in 2010 vs 5 B in the U.S.Despite this, Brazil ranks only 21st as global exporter of merchandise
17 B. Political-military influence very unbalanced 1. American power based on an enormous military-industrial complexLargest military budget in world ($600 B/yr)U.S. Military force twice the size of Brazil’sGlobal military deployment by the U.S.Plays the role of the world policeOften denounced as imperialisticBrazilian political cartoonist: Latuff 2011Title: Obama arrives in RioBubble: Where’s the petroleum?
18 2. Brazil’s Political Weight is largely inferior to the U.S. Brazil’s diplomatic influence on the world stage remains very lowDespite Brazil’s recent extension of its embassies networkDespite sending the largest contingent of UN peacekeeping forces to Haiti
19 3. Brazil is self-proclaimed political spokesperson of the South Former president Lula activated his South-South solidarity with emerging and Portuguese-speaking countriesWTO: Lula criticized protectionism of Northern countriesBrazil has evolved from net receiver of development aid to net giverBUT Brazilian aid remains much inferior to that of the U.S.
20 C. Cultural Americanization (Soft Power) US has initiated cultural models which are spread worldwideMalls, fast-food, mainstream culture (cinema, TV series, social media) characterize the American model of mass consumptionBased on the “American dream”, the American way of Life attracts the largest immigrant population in the world
21 1. Brazil unable to rival U.S. cultural domination Brazil great producers of TV series exported in more than 130 countries (primarily Eastern Europe and Middle East)Video: Trailer Avenida BrazilBrazilian culture has reduced impact due to lack of Portuguese speakers on world stage
22 2. Cultural hegemony of Brazil is more regional than global Main media group in Latin America : GloboTelevision, cinema, pressBrazil’s ambitions are planetary - organizing international sporting eventsFootball World Cup in 2014The Olympic Games in 2016 (Rio de Janeiro)
23 D. U.S., Brazil: Territories which reflect their power 1. 2 immense territories but unequally controlledSurface area of US 9.8 million km²Surface area of Brazil 8.5 million km²15-17 times the size of metropolitan FranceMajor challenge: transportation networksNew York & Sao Paulo highest rail traffic in worldBrazil: air traffic more than doubled from 2004 to 2010 but planes used less often than U.S. despite long distances
24 2. Metropolises, mirrors of power in North & South America Main metropolises in Brazil & the U.S. along the coastlineHistorical Populating of both countries from the coastlineSimilar urbanization rate (Brazil: 87% US: 82%)Cities of the American Sun Belt (Phoenix, Dallas, Las Vegas) and those of the Northwest of Brazil (Manaus, Fortaleza, Brasilia) have grown the most rapidly
25 Cities at the Heart of Power Concentration of political functions (Brasilia, Washington)Financial functions (stock markets of New York, Chicago & Sao Paulo)Research PolesSilicon Valley & San FranciscoAmazon Basin (earth sciences, biodiversity) & Minas GeraisManufacturingTourism (Miami and Rio de Janeiro tourist spots attracting global population)
26 10 Largest Metropolises in the U.S. and Brazil CityPopulation (millions of inhabitants)Sao Paulo19.9New York19Los Angeles12.9Rio de Janeiro11.5Chicago9.6Dallas-Fort Worth6.4Philadelphia6Houston5.9Miami5.5Washington, D.C.
27 Metropolization: merging American & Brazilian urban models Brazilian cities increasingly resemble American metropolis modelsOrganized around a Central Business DistrictConcentrates the functions of powerPhenomenon of urban sprawlVideo Ted Talks: Eduardo Paes - Mayor of Rio de Janeiro -The Future of Cities,March 2012, 12”21
28 Sao Paulo 2,000 migrants arrive per week! Population: 20 million Rapid urbanisation causes overcrowding2,000 migrants arrive per week!High birth rate and lowering death rate (Rostow stg. 3)Internal rural to urban migration mainly from the poor NE region of Brazil.Pull factors of Sao Paulo50% of industry is clustered in & around Sao PauloManufacturing (vehicles, machinery, textiles & shoes)Also iron ore is found around Sao Paulo Booming construction industryMany businesses including coffee exports Improved roads & rail communication have encouraged migration
29 Impacts of Urbanization on People & the environment creation of large slums or ‘Favelas’
30 Characteristics of Squatter Cities Housing materials are collected from available resources, e.g. corrugated tinLittle sanitationNo running waterNo cooking facilitiesIllegal hookup to electricity, if anyNo political voiceLack of social services
31 Spatial Distribution of Favelas On the periphery of the cities in LDCs around the world.In Europe and Latin America the rich choose to live in the culturally-rich inner city, the opposite is sometimes true in North American cities
32 3. Other Aspects in Common Both Countries populated by PioneersHighly religious culture but little religious conflictRich natural resources exploitedEnergyBrazil highly dependent on hydroelectric power – 80%Brazil developing wind energy + biofuelsThanks to recent oil reserves discovered offshore, Brazil is self-sufficient in petroleum unlike the U.S.
33 4. Risk Management less effective in Brazil than the U.S. Brazilians vulnerable to tropical stormsFlooding killed a thousand people near Rio in 2011Southeast of the US is particularly exposed to cyclones, tornadoes and flooding by the Mississippi
34 HomeworkU.S. “croquis” due March 18th (see blog for blank map and legend)Reading Homework (texts on blog)Measure of America Quick Facts 2014Detroit Rust Belt2 Americas: Brazil vs. USBrazil takes offBrazil’s Future