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Contrasts in Development between and within a country Case Study: Brazil.

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Presentation on theme: "Contrasts in Development between and within a country Case Study: Brazil."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contrasts in Development between and within a country Case Study: Brazil

2 Learning outcomes To study how wealth is not equally spread within countries Using Brazil as an example

3 Spatial aspects of Development Wealth is never spread evenly through a country, but tends to be concentrated in certain areas These are known as the CORE and have a concentration of population, wealth and resources The periphery consists of sparsely populated areas which are less developed than the core

4 Global Scale: North South Divide On a world scale the developed countries constitute the global core, whereas the developing countries make up the periphery

5 The Gap between the North and South The developing world has 75% of the world’s population But…(world scale %) 15% of energy consumption 17% GNP 30% food grains 18% exports 11% education spending 6% health expenditure

6 Regional Scale Divide: Brazil Brazil is 8,512,000 Km2 Covers 1/3 of South America Population approx 150 million- x3 that of the UK There is a core part of the country: SE There is a periphery part of the country: NE


8 Historical Background People have settled in the country from : Britain, Portugal, Italy, Japan and Africa First claimed in 1500 by Portugal Trade developed in the NE and during the 1690s agricultural products/ minerals were taken back to Portugal from Brazil Salvador in the NE was the old capital


10 Historical background cont. Coffee was grown in the SE where the was a less extreme climate Slaves were brought in from Africa to work 1763 Rio became the capital reflecting a decline from the NE Independence from Portugal in 1822 Early 20 th century SE became the economic core region producing iron, steel, food products and engineering work 1970/80s car industry 1960s government planned a new capital: Brasilia


12 Growth of cities ¾ of all Brazilians live in urban areas Rural to urban migration particularly from NE regions Main destinations for the migrants where cities: Rio Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte in the SE

13 The South East vs North East SE: Core region Population density 63 per km2 NE: Periphery Population density 25 per km 2 Differences between the two are a result of: Historical Physical Economic Social factors

14 Historical Factors As mentioned before NE first core area based on Portuguese colony, Salvador the old capital Coffee growing started in SE, better climate Rio became the capital Other industries started to develop in the area, new capital city developed

15 Physical SE has a more desirable climate NE very arid SE has all year round growing season due to reliable rainfall 2000mm per year of rain Amazon rainforest has stopped development in North of Brazil NE has unreliable rainfall <500mm of rain making it prone to drought SE has terra rossa soils- good soils, better than NE

16 Economic Better job opportunities in the SE 70% employed in industry in SE 10% in NE Car manufacturing in SE (VW) 54% of population live in SE and it has 64% of the wealth

17 Social Services have centralised in the SE 550% growth in the last 45 years in the number of city dwellers Better education than the NE Infant mortality and life expectancy much better in SE

18 Recap Global disparities in wealth e.g. North- South Divide Regional: Brazil Due to historical, economic, physical and social factors Core region SE compared to periphery: NE

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