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An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Presented by : M. Eftekhari.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Presented by : M. Eftekhari."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Presented by : M. Eftekhari

2 Outlines of seminar  Cognitive Science  Philosophical challenge  What is AI?  The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Artificial Life  The Future of AI

3 Cognitive Science  Interdisciplinary study of mind (human consciousness that is separate from the body) and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology.  To understand the mind in terms of representation and computation

4 Cognitive Science (Continued)  Thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures (Connectionist theories which model thinking using artificial neural networks )  Mind has mental representations analogous to computer data structures

5 Cognitive Science (Continued)  The mind contains such mental representations as logical propositions, rules, concepts, images, and analogies, and that it uses mental procedures such as deduction, search, matching, rotating, and retrieval  Computational aspects and human actions. (Control of body)

6 Cognitive Science (History ) Continued …  Ancient Greeks  Aristotle tried to explain the nature of human knowledge  Nineteenth century, experimental psychology developed (Wilhelm Wund )  Observable stimuli and observable behavioral responses (behaviorism, not consciousness and mental representations )  Around 1956, the intellectual landscape began to change

7 Cognitive Science (History ) Continued …  The capacity of human thinking is limited (Miller )  The emergence of primitive computers  John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon were founding the field of AI.  Noam Chomsky rejected behaviorist assumptions about language as a learned habit and proposed instead to explain language comprehension in terms of mental grammars consisting of rules.  The six thinkers, the founders of cognitive science and AI.

8 Theoretical Approaches  Theories about the nature of the representations and computations which their target is Why do people have a particular kind of intelligent behavior?  Formal Logic  Rules  Concepts  Analogies  Images  Neural Connections

9 Outlines of seminar  Cognitive Science  Philosophical challenge  What is AI?  The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Artificial Life  The Future of AI

10 Philosophical challenge  Weak AI (simulation of mind )  Strong AI (acting as an actual mind )  Can machines think? (Turing rejected this question)  The challenge of Consciousness and Strong AI  Most of the AI researchers confirm weak AI.

11 Outlines of seminar  Cognitive Science  Philosophical challenge  What is AI?  The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Artificial Life  The Future of AI

12 What is AI? Systems that think like humans (Cognitive approach) Systems that think rationally (the laws of thought) Systems that act like humans (Turing Test) Systems that act rationally (agent approach) Categories for definitions of AI

13 What is AI?  The Turing Test: Preliminaries  Designed by Alan Turing (1950)  The Turing test provides a satisfactory operational definition of AI  It’s a behavioral test (i.e., test if a system acts like a human)  Problem: it is difficult to make a mathematical analysis of it

14 The Turing Test The Turing Test: a computer is programmed well enough to have a conversation with an interrogator (for example through a computer terminal) and passes the test if the interrogator cannot discern if there is a computer or a human at the other end ?

15 The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Natural language processing (NLP)  Knowledge representation  Automated reasoning  Machine learning  Robotics  Machine Vision

16 Outlines of seminar  Cognitive Science  Philosophical challenge  What is AI?  The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Artificial Life  The Future of AI

17 Artificial Life  To more understanding of nature and biology  In order to improve the the AI models.  An Artificial laboratory for Biololgy. (Performing Experiments which are impossible in real world of biology)  AI is a top-down Approach  AL is a down-top Approach  The behavioral aspects of animals such as birds, ants, ….

18 Artificial Life  Evolution, Emergence (temperature is caused by molecular interactions in low level ), ….  Van Newman (1950) the father of AL, the reproduction of machines based on cellular automata (Ulman)

19 Outlines of seminar  Cognitive Science  Philosophical challenge  What is AI?  The Turing Test vs. AI Fields  Artificial Life  The Future of AI

20 The Future of AI  What is the basic of Intelligence ?  The advent of extra-intelligence machines  The advent of spiritual machines and the end of human race.(2099) 

21 Question Time ?


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