2Introduction of AI Knowledge? Intelligence? Intelligent Machine? What is A.I.?
3What is knowledge?Knowledge is a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject or a domain.Knowledge is the sum of what is currently Known.
4What is Intelligence?Someone’s intelligence is their ability to understand and learn things.Intelligence is the ability to think and understand instead of doing things by instinct or automatically.It gives some flexibility. It does not specify whether it is someone or something that has the ability to think and understand.
5What is Thinking?Thinking is the activity of using your brain to consider a problem or to create an idea.In order to think, someone or something has to have a brain – an organ that enables someone or something to learn and understand things, to solve problems and to make decisions.
6Intelligence?So we can now define Intelligence, is the ability to learn and understand, to solve problems and to make decisions.
8Intelligence Machine (Cont.) So, a machine is thought intelligent if it can achieve human-level performance in some situations.To build an intelligent machine, we have to capture, organize and use human expert knowledge in some problem area.
9What is AI? Views of AI fall into four categories: Thinking humanly 1234Thinking humanlyActing humanlyThinking rationallyActing rationally
10What is AI? (Thinking Humanly) A given program must have some way of determining how human thinks. We need to get inside the actual working of human minds. There are two ways to do this –Through introspectionTrying to catch our own thoughts as they go by.Through psychological experimentsA child’s cognitive development.1Thinking humanly:The cognitive Modeling Approach
11What is AI? (Acting Humanly) Intelligent machines must possess the following capabilities –Natural Language processingKnowledge representationAutomated reasoningMachine learningTo pass the total Turing test, the intelligent machine will need-Computer vision to perceive objectsRobotics to manipulate objects and move about2Acting humanly:The Turing Test Approach
12(Thinking Rationally) What is AI?(Thinking Rationally)SyllogismsSocrates is a man;All men are mortalTherefore Socrates is mortal.LogicThese laws of thought were supposed to govern the operation of mind.Their study initiated the field called Logic3Thinking rationally:The laws of thought approach
13What is AI? (Acting Rationally) 4Rational behavior: doing the right thingThe right thing: that which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available informationActing rationally:The rational agent approach
14Recommended Textbooks [Negnevitsky, 2001] M. Negnevitsky “ Artificial Intelligence: A guide to Intelligent Systems”, Pearson Education Limited, England, 2002.[Russel, 2003] S. Russell and P. Norvig Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Prentice Hall, 2003, Second Edition[Patterson, 1990] D. W. Patterson, “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems”, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J, USA, 1990.[Minsky, 1974] M. Minsky “A Framework for Representing Knowledge”, MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306, 1974.[Hubel, 1995] David H. Hubel, “Eye, Brain, and Vision”[Ballard, 1982] D. H. Ballard and C. M. Brown, “Computer Vision”, Prentice Hall, 1982.