Approaches, Tools, and Applications Islam A. El-Shaarawy Shoubra Faculty of Eng.
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Agenda AI Definition AI Approaches AI Tools AI Applications Open Discussion
Approaches, Tools, and Applications FUZZY LOGIC NEURAL NETWORKS PROLOG EXPERT SYSTEMS GENETIC ALGORITHMS ANT COLONY DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING PATTERN RECOGNITION AGENTS … … … … ? ? ? ?
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science, which aims to create it. Major AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines" AI Definition
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Turing test The Turing test is a proposal for a test of a machine's ability to demonstrate intelligence. It proceeds as follows: A human judge engages in a conversation with one human and one machine each of which tries to appear human All participants are placed in isolated locations. If the judge cannot reliably tell the machine from the human, the machine is said to have passed the test. AI Definition
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Approaches to AI Cybernetics and brain simulation (neurology, information theory, and cybernetics) Traditional symbolic AI (Logical AI/Knowledge based AI) Sub-symbolic AI (Computational Intelligence) Statistical AI AI Approaches
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Logic Propositional Fuzzy Logic Specialized Languages Prolog Lisp Probabilistic Methods (for uncertain reasoning) Bayesian Network Hidden Markov Model Genetic Algorithms Artificial Neural Networks Swarm Intelligence AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic is a form of multi-valued logic derived from fuzzy set theory to deal with reasoning that is approximate rather than precise. AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Algorithm In mathematics, computing, linguistics and related subjects, an algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions, often used for calculation and data processing. Named after Muhammad ibn Musa abu Gaafar Khwarizmi Algorithm development: Designing Algorithms Expressing Algorithms Algorithms Implementation Algorithms Analysis (Abstract versus Empirical) AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Genetic Algorithms GA is search technique used in computing to find exact or approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. Genetic algorithms are a particular class of evolutionary algorithms that use techniques inspired by evolutionary biology in which population evolution proceeds as follows: Initialization Selection Reproduction Crossover Mutation AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Artificial Neural Network It is a mathematical model or computational model based on biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Intelligent Agent In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes and acts upon an environment (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is rational). The idea is that agents are not strictly invoked for a task, but activate themselves. Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Swarm intelligence Swarm intelligence (SI) is a type of artificial intelligence based on the collective behavior of decentralized, self- organized systems. SI systems are typically made up of a population of simple agents interacting locally with one another and with their environment. The agents follow very simple rules, and although there is no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local, and to a certain degree random, interactions between such agents lead to the emergence of "intelligent" global behavior, unknown to the individual agents. AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Swarm intelligence (cont.) Natural examples of SI include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth, and fish schooling. The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics, while 'swarm intelligence' refers to the more general set of algorithms. 'Swarm prediction' has been used in the context of forecasting problems. AI Tools
Approaches, Tools, and Applications Robotics Finance Stock Market Prediction Stolen Credit Card Detection Medicine Diagnoses Disease Prediction Telecommunications Transportation Aviation Toys and Games AI Applications