Cognitive science is the science of mind and behavior. Of or pertaining to cognition, or to the action or process of knowing (OED) Understanding knowledge acquisition and use is the key to understanding the mind.
So what is cognitive science? Cognitive science is a scientific study of the mind with special emphasis on the use and acquisition of knowledge and information. Implications An inter-disciplinary approach – Many scientific disciplines contribute to cognitive science. A computational approach – Explain information processing in terms of neural computations.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary study of mind and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. how is the nature of the human mind? “… seeks to understand perceiving, thinking, remembering, understanding language, learning, and other mental phenomena.” “… a basic science it seeks to discover highly general and explanatory fundamental principles of information processing.”
…..Information processing everywhere Perception acquiring real-time information about the surrounding environment. Language use making use of information about syntax, semantics and phonology. Reasoning combining different sources of information, deriving new information, testing consistency of information, etc. Action making use of information in action planning and guidance. Memory storing and retrieving information This is one reason why cognitive science is inter-disciplinary….
Why there was no cognitive science They didn’t think that knowledge is the key. Perhaps it is a special substance? (Dualism) Perhaps it is stimulus-response? (Behaviorism) They didn’t know about computers. Small stupid steps combine to do difficult things. A useful short history: http://ls.berkeley.edu/ugis/cogsci/major/about.php
Usaha untuk memahami kerja dari alam berfikir manusia (MIND) sudah dimulai : sejak zaman Yunani Plato dan Aritoteles the nature of human knowledge FILSAFAT Abad –19 W.Wundt Laboratorium untuk mempelajari mental operations PSIKOLOGI EKSPERIMEN J.B. Watson meninjau dari hubungan S -- R BEHAVIORISM TIDAK menerima aspek kesadaran (consciousness) dan representasi mental
Pertengahan 1950 John Mc.Carthy, Artificial Marvin Minsky, Intelligence Allen Newell, Herbert Simon Tahun 1956 Simposium MIT Miller Memory Noam Chomsky Linguist Kognitif Sains Lahir sekitar tahun 1970
What is special about cognitive science? Focuses on knowledge and information as the key to understanding the mind. Interdisciplinary Computational approach Special relevance to IT and AI Individualistic Multi-level explanations
Social psychology Educational psychology Psychology Cognitive science
…Summary Cognitive science is an inter-disciplinary science of mind and behavior. The computational approach : using computations and representations to explain mental processes. Three levels of descriptions. Coming up next: language as an example.