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Rhetorical Strategies If Rhetoric = and Strategy = Then Rhetorical Strategy = Effective or skillful use of language A careful plan or method The careful.

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Presentation on theme: "Rhetorical Strategies If Rhetoric = and Strategy = Then Rhetorical Strategy = Effective or skillful use of language A careful plan or method The careful."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rhetorical Strategies If Rhetoric = and Strategy = Then Rhetorical Strategy = Effective or skillful use of language A careful plan or method The careful planning of language to achieve a desired effect on the audience (e.g. convince, persuade, create emotion)

2 The Big Three Three strategies are found in all rhetoric: Diction Syntax Tone These strategies are found in ALL speech and writing; the trick is to figure out how and why they are used.

3 An Important Note Diction, syntax, and tone work together to form rhetoric. They do not act separately, but rather as interlocking pieces of the whole. Diction SyntaxTone Rhetoric

4 Diction Definition: word choice Formal Diction:Informal Diction: “These are people with whom I’ve“She’s like, my best friend formed a strong genial bond.” ever.”

5 Syntax Definition: the arrangement of words in a sentence The clock struck eight. SheAs the clock struck eight she waited. Nobody came.gazed longingly at the door, but nobody came.

6 Tone Definition: the speaker’s attitude toward the subject or audience Humorous tone: Passionate tone: Disinterested Tone: “But they’ll never take our freedom!” “This is boring.”

7 So, where do we go from there? There are many other rhetorical strategies, but it’s good to think of diction, syntax, and tone as umbrella terms. The other rhetorical terms will mostly fall under one of those three umbrellas

8 WARNING!!!! The following list of rhetorical strategies is not all inclusive!!! What does that mean? It means that you already know a lot of terms not included here...repetition (syntax), imagery (diction), passionate (tone), etc… This list is focused on expanding and refining your knowledge not repeating what you already know

9 Juxtaposition Definition: placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts We live in a world of love and of hate. Umbrella Term: Syntax

10 Allusion Definition: a brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art (hint: allusions must refer to common knowledge; different from a reference) She’s as crazy as Britney Spears. I am no Judas. Umbrella Term: Diction

11 Paradox Definition: a statement that seems contradictory but is nevertheless true. We will continue to fight for peace. Umbrella Term: Diction

12 Oxymoron Definition: a paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another Jumbo shrimphonest lawyer (note: this is a joke) Umbrella Term: Syntax

13 Parallelism Definition: similarity in structure of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.“ - John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address Umbrella Term: Syntax

14 Understatement Definition: deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact “It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain.” - J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye Umbrella Term: Diction

15 Effusive Definition: excessive demonstration of emotions; bubbly or gushy emotions “OMG! The sky is so blue and I am so happy. Today is such a great day! It just makes me want to jump up and down and throw my hands in the air! Weeeeeee!!!” - Random Effusive Teenage Girl Umbrella Term: Tone

16 Hypophora Definition: raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at length "Since we have come so far, whom shall be rash enough to set limits on our future progress? Who shall say that since we have gone so far, we can go no farther? Who shall say that the American dream is ended? For myself, I believe that all we have done upon this continent is but a prelude to a future in which we shall become not only a bigger people but also a wiser people, a better people, an even greater people." - Adlai Stevenson (Politician) 1953 Stump Speech Umbrella Term: Syntax

17 Rhetorical Question Definition: a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer Why are you so stupid? Are you trying to fail this class? Umbrella Term: Syntax

18 Metaphor/Simile Definition: compares one thing to another in order to explain by comparison. Similes use “like” or “as”; metaphors do not. Simile: “You’re as cold as ice…” Metaphor: “No man is an island.” - Foreigner (song)- John Donne Umbrella Term: Diction

19 Epigraph Definition: phrase, quote, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or text Epigraph to Eclipse by Stephenie Meyer: “Fire and Ice” by Robert Frost Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I’ve tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice. Umbrella Term: Syntax

20 Alliteration Definition: repetition of the same sound beginning several words in a sequence “Step forward, Tin Man. You dare to Come to me for a heart do you? You clinking, clanking, clattering collection of caliginous junk… And you, Scarecrow, have the effrontery to ask for a brain! You billowing bale of bovine fodder!" - delivered by the "Wizard of Oz" from the movie The Wizard of Oz Umbrella Term: Diction

21 Hyperbole Definition: use of overstatement for rhetorical effect Umbrella Term: Diction

22 Insolent Definition: boldly rude or disrespectful “You act like a teenager, so why don’t you get a curfew?!?” - Insolent teenager to her mother Umbrella Term: Tone

23 Sarcastic Definition: using mocking, contemptuous, or ironic language to mark scorn or insult I really love homework. There’s nothing I would rather do than stay up until 2 in the morning finishing Calculus work. - Sarcastic statement attributable to many Calculus students Umbrella Term: Tone

24 Asyndeton Definition: omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words “I came, I saw, I conquered.” “We shall pay any price, bear any - Julius Caesar burden, meet any hardship, support any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” - John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address Umbrella Term: Syntax

25 Antithesis Definition: opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction (hint: juxtaposition + parallelism = antithesis) Umbrella Term: Syntax "The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.“ - Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address (delivered by Jeff Daniels) “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” – Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 Moon Landing Speech

26 Laudatory Definition: expressing praise “Inception was the best movie of the summer due to its dazzling special effects, intellectual screenplay, and its tour de force performances.” - Any intelligent movie critic giving Inception its much deserved praise Umbrella Term: Tone

27 Apostrophe Definition: an address or invocation to something inanimate (i.e. talking directly to it) “Oh you cruel streets of Manhattan! How I detest you!” Umbrella Term: Diction

28 Didactic Definition: morally instructive (i.e. teaching in a preachy way) “So the AP student that never did his homework learned in the end that procrastination is the route to failure.” - AP teacher didactically instructing his students in the pitfalls of procrastination Umbrella Term: Tone

29 Chiasmus/Antimetabole Definition: repetition of words in reverse order One should eat to live not live to eat. You can weather change, but you can’t change the weather. “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.” - JFK, Inaugural Address Umbrella Term: Syntax Sad Pluto  Stupid weather! I’ll get through this.

30 Anaphora Definition: repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines “We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight on the hills; we shall never surrender.” - Winston Churchill (British Prime Minister) Speech to the House of Commons June 4, 1940 Umbrella Term: Syntax

31 Epistrophe Definition: the repetition of a phrase at the end of successive sentences “If women are healthy and educated, their families will flourish. If women are free from violence, their families will flourish. If women have a chance to work…their families will flourish.” - Hillary Clinton “Women’s Rights are Human Rights” September 5, 1995 Umbrella Term: Syntax

32 Melancholy Definition: sober thoughtfulness and sadness Dear Diary, My life is such a trial. I feel as if there are dark clouds obscuring my heart. - Emo teenager’s melancholic journal entry Umbrella Term: Tone

33 Polysyndeton Definition: the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause in a series (structural opposite of asyndeton, but the effect is often the same – enumeration or building up) "Oh, my piglets, we are the origins of war -- not history's forces, nor the times, nor justice, nor the lack of it, nor causes, nor religions, nor ideas, nor kinds of government -- nor any other thing. We are the killers." - delivered by Katherine Hepburn (from the movie The Lion in Winter) Umbrella Term: Syntax

34 Periodic/Loose Sentence Definition: In a periodic sentence, the main clause is at the end. In a loose sentence, the main clause is at the beginning. Loose sentence:Periodic Sentence: The child ran, frenzied and Looking as if she were being ignoring all hazards, as if being chased by demons, ignoring all chased by demons. hazards, the child ran. Umbrella Term: Syntax

35 Patronizing Definition: offensively condescending “Of course you don’t know what love is, you’re just a teenager.” - Patronizing parent Umbrella Term: Tone

36 Connotation/Denotation Definition: Connotation is the implied meaning of a word or phrase. Denotation is the dictionary definition. Skinny vs.Slender Thrifty vs. Cheap Umbrella Term: Diction

37 Litotes Definition: ironic understatement (achieved by saying the opposite of the opposite of what is meant) They’re not bad dancers.They’re no ordinary family. Umbrella Term: Diction

38 Ellipses Definition: a mark or series of marks that usually indicate the intentional omission of a word or phrase from the original text…can also be used to indicate a pause in speech, an unfinished thought, or, at the end of a sentence, a trailing off into silence… Umbrella Term: Syntax

39 Pedantic Definition: ostentatious or showy in one’s learning You really should read War and Peace; it’s vital to your edification. Umbrella Term: Tone

40 Extended Metaphor Definition: a metaphor that extends throughout a piece of literature (note: a particularly inventive extended metaphor is sometimes called a conceit) Umbrella Term: Diction

41 Irony Definition: the contrast between what it stated explicitly and what is meant. The intended meaning is frequently the opposite of what is stated. Often suggests light sarcasm Most Alanis Morissette’s “Ironic” isn’t ironic… That’s ironic. Escalators at the gym? Really? Umbrella Term: Diction

42 Zeugma Definition: where a word, usually a verb or adjective, is applied to two or more nouns without being repeated. Usually has a comic effect. The thief took my wallet “He carried a strobe light and the and the 5 th avenue bus.responsibility for the lives of his men.“ - Tim O’Brien The Things They Carried Umbrella Term: Syntax

43 Obsequious Definition: blindly obedient and dutiful I so need to have an iPhone. It’s not even worth it to have any other phone. Anybody who’s worth texting has an iPhone. Umbrella Term: Tone

44 Euphemism Definition: mild or less negative usage for a harsh or blunt term Umbrella Term: Diction

45 Nostalgic Definition: characterized by bittersweet longing for things in the past Umbrella Term: Tone I remember the golden days of my youth, enjoying cotton candy at the state fair with my family…

46 Anecdote Definition: a short often amusing account of an incident, especially a personal or biographical one During the 1957 World Series, Yankees catcher Yogi Berra noticed that Hank Aaron grasped the bat the wrong way. “Turn it around,” he said, “so you can see the trademark.” But Hank kept his eye on the pitcher’s mound: “Didn’t come up here to read. Came here to hit.” - Little Brown Book of Anecdotes Umbrella Term: Diction

47 Disdainful Definition: scornful; showing contempt I can’t believe you liked Scott Pilgrim vs. the World. Only immature 10 year old gamers would like that movie. - Disdainful critic Umbrella Term: Tone

48 Colloquial Definition: informal and conversational. Often marked by the use of slang. OMG! U nd me r so prfct 2gethr… letz b bf nd gf…LOL jk ;p Umbrella Term: Tone I don't careidc I don't knowidk I hate youihy -or- i { "@context": "", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "", "name": "Colloquial Definition: informal and conversational.", "description": "Often marked by the use of slang. OMG. U nd me r so prfct 2gethr… letz b bf nd gf…LOL jk ;p Umbrella Term: Tone I don t careidc I don t knowidk I hate youihy -or- i

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