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Presentation on theme: "Rhetoric."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rhetoric

2 What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is: Speaking or writing effectively
Using words for a purpose; often this purpose is to persuade. Aristotle: “the power to see the possible ways of persuading people about a given subject.”

3 What is the Purpose and Goal?
Purpose of Rhetoric To analyze arguments of others To learn how to write your own arguments Goal of Persuasion To change the points of view of others To motivate others to take action

4 Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Logos Ethos Pathos
Aristotle taught there are 3 main strategies in an argument Logos Ethos Pathos

5 The core of the rhetorical chart is purpose — What does the author/speaker cartoonist/filmmaker/advertiser want the reader/listener/viewer to Feel? Think? Do? Author’s Purpose Logos Ethos Pathos

6 Each appeal is equally important and potentially affects the others.
Rhetoric Triangle Each appeal is equally important and potentially affects the others.

7 Logos Logical Argument Involves facts Statistics Research
Quoted experts Cause and Effect information Analogies or comparisons Common sense information Shared values

8 Pathos Emotional Appeal Appeals to the heart Emotions Sympathy
Passions Sentimentality Uses imagery, figurative language Carefully constructed sentences Personal anecdotes

9 Anaphora Anaphora repetition of a word or group of words at the beginning of items in a series This repetition emphasizes the point and expresses passion and emotion. Moreover, the repetition affects the audience emotionally.

10 Anaphora and Pathos used together
We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. —Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, June 4, 1940

11 Ethos Credibility Appeals to the conscience, ethics, morals, standards, values, and principles. Author or speaker tries to convince you he is of good character. Qualified to make his claims. Cites relevant authorities. Quotes others accurately and fairly.

12 What type of rhetoric? Former President George W. Bush’s address to a joint session of Congress following the 9/11 attacks Al Gore’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech Maya Angelou’s remarks at the funeral service for Coretta Scott King

13 Pathos President Bush uses pathos to acknowledge the courageous act of Todd Beamer when “[he] rushed terrorists to save others on the ground….” In addition, President Bush points out the feelings of the American people toward their fellow Americans when he discusses the “unfurling of flags, the lighting of candles….” to show that America is united and will not let “terrorists” destroy the “strong…union.”

14 Pathos: Complete the graph
How do you feel about being an American when you read this passage? How does the phrase “lighting of candles” express emotions? “lighting of the candles” Using the word “candles” creates brings up a feeling of … The word “lighting” suggests a feeling of ….

15 Logos Circle the logical appeal on your worksheet Examples:
“ Svante Arrhenius calculated…” “ my teacher, Roger Revelle, and… Dave Keeling…” What do the experts bring to the article? What does the scientific research do for Gore’s Conclusion?

16 Ethos Angelou emphasizes her relationship with Mrs. King, and therefore her qualifications to speak, by referring to herself and King as “we” and also as “ a sister-of-a-sister.” Through Angelou’s first person reference and reference to racial affiliation, Angelou makes it clear that she is qualified to speak to others that cared about Mrs. King because they were friends.

17 Ethos: Complete the graph
“all the other families in the world who would want to be here” “We” Angelou emphasizes her relationship with Mrs. King, and therefore qualifies her to speak by referring to herself and King as “we” Angelou includes the audience in her statements, creating a feeling that she is connected to and speaks for all who cared for Mrs. King. How did reference to Dr. Martin Luther King provide credibility to Maya Angelou’s remarks? If you didn’t know Maya Angelou was a world renowned speaker, how did her speech make it seem as such?

18 Review Ethos- Appeal based on the character of the speaker Pathos- Appeal based on emotion Logos-

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