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I CAN Explain how we retrieve our memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
How Do We Retrieve Memories? Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Implicit and Explicit Memory Implicit Memory Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness or memory of ever having learned them Procedural memories are often implicit, but not always In daily life, people rely on implicit memory in the form of procedural memory….. …the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Implicit and Explicit Memory Explicit Memory Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled For Example: - Answers to a test -Remembering the time of an appointment -Recalling your favorite Christmas
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior Cue Card
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Déjà Vu (French for ‘already seen’) Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience "I've experienced this before."
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Priming Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming If you are presented with the following words: assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming An hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen: twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _us _ oog _ y _ _ _ _ l _ m _ te Priming However, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming While you did not actively try to remember “octopus” and “climate” from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this task chipmunk octopus boogeyman climate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieving Explicit Memories Anything stored in LTM must be “filed” according to its pattern or meaning. So the best way to add material to the LTM is to associate it with material already in the LTM--- We call this???
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recall and Recognition Recall Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented information Example: On an essay test, you must create answers entirely from memory with only the help of a few cues.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recall and Recognition Recognition Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented Example: On a multiple choice test, you only have to identify a previous stimulus (answer)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Encoding Specificity Principle The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered SITUATIONAL FACTORS can make a difference Example: Test questions need to be presented on a test in a similar context in which they were presented in the class.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Mood Congruent Memory A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one’s mood State of mind can determine retrieval A happy moods is likely to trigger happy memories Depression perpetuates itself through the retrieval of depressing memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 TOT (tip of the tongue) Phenomenon The inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory. Explained by a poor match between a retrieval cue and the LTM
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon Watch Tip of the Tongue Learning video on Youtube Jason Smith is a master of this!
CAN I? Explain how we retrieve our memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 7 Cognition This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
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