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I CAN Explain how we retrieve our memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
How Do We Retrieve Memories? Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Implicit and Explicit Memory Implicit Memory Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness or memory of ever having learned them Procedural memories are often implicit, but not always In daily life, people rely on implicit memory in the form of procedural memory….. …the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Implicit and Explicit Memory Explicit Memory Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled For Example: - Answers to a test -Remembering the time of an appointment -Recalling your favorite Christmas
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior Cue Card
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Déjà Vu (French for ‘already seen’) Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience "I've experienced this before."
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Priming Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming If you are presented with the following words: assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming An hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen: twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _us _ oog _ y _ _ _ _ l _ m _ te Priming However, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming While you did not actively try to remember “octopus” and “climate” from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this task chipmunk octopus boogeyman climate
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieving Explicit Memories Anything stored in LTM must be “filed” according to its pattern or meaning. So the best way to add material to the LTM is to associate it with material already in the LTM--- We call this???
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recall and Recognition Recall Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented information Example: On an essay test, you must create answers entirely from memory with only the help of a few cues.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recall and Recognition Recognition Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented Example: On a multiple choice test, you only have to identify a previous stimulus (answer)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Encoding Specificity Principle The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered SITUATIONAL FACTORS can make a difference Example: Test questions need to be presented on a test in a similar context in which they were presented in the class.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Mood Congruent Memory A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one’s mood State of mind can determine retrieval A happy moods is likely to trigger happy memories Depression perpetuates itself through the retrieval of depressing memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 TOT (tip of the tongue) Phenomenon The inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory. Explained by a poor match between a retrieval cue and the LTM
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon Watch Tip of the Tongue Learning video on Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T36I8Coiz64 Jason Smith is a master of this!
CAN I? Explain how we retrieve our memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Ways to use deep processing Actively question new info Relate info to things you already know Generate own examples of concepts Think about its implications.
How Do We Retrieve Memories? Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued.
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon PowerPoint Presentations for Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Vivian McCann Prepared by Beth M. Schwartz This multimedia.
Memory. What is Memory? Memory is a system that encodes, stores and retrieves information –Process by which information is taken in, converted to meaningful.
Memory -- Retreival. Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store…it is there, but how do we get it out to be able to use? Retrieval.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentations for Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Vivian McCann Prepared.
Memory & Learning AP Psychology. Memory Can you remember your first memory? Why do you think you can remember certain events in your life over others?
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Article Read the copy of the article provided –This is an in class set, please don’t write on it. Take notes on all elements relating to memory.
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Long Term Memory Chapter 7. Types of Memory Short-Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone number, then quickly.
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+ A closer look at: Retrieval. + Yesterday and today you learned about… Stage 1: Encoding. Stage 2: Storage. Once information is encoded and stored successfully,
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Memory Stage Analysis Learning Retrieval Retention The Learning – Retention Controversy Results from the fact that there is no independent test for learning.
C Pearson Allyn & Bacon Encoding and Retrieval Processes in Long-Term Memory Chapter 6.
Memory. ____________________ persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information Flashbulb Memory a clear memory.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Cognition and MEMORY.
1 Retrieval: Getting Information Out Module Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues.
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Chapter 6 Cognitive Psychology, 2 nd Ed.. Types of Long-Term Memory Declarative memory refers to knowledge of events, facts, and concepts (knowing what).
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 7 Cognition This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Retrieval: Getting information out Long after you cannot recall most of the people in your school yearbook you are still able to recognize their pictures.
Retrieval. Memory Retrieval To retrieve a memory you must first have some kind of retrieval cue Examples? Examples?
MEMORY Chapter 7 Created By Dr. J. Michael Jacobs, Professor Shepherd College, Shepherdstown, WV Adapted by Dr. Anna DeVito.
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