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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentations for Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Vivian McCann Prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentations for Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Vivian McCann Prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentations for Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Vivian McCann Prepared by Beth M. Schwartz Randolph College This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Seventh Edition

2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: Chapter 5 Memory

3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information. What Is Memory?

4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Memory? Memory A cognitive system that processes, encodes, and stores the information we learn and later allows us to retrieve it

5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Metaphors for Memory Human memory is not like a video recorder. Human memory is an interpretive system, much like an artist. Reconstructive process Unique “perception” of events Information undergoes systematic changes as it is processed.

6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Human Memory Is Good at Remembering Information: On which attention is focused In which we are interested That arouses us emotionally That fits with our previous experiences That we rehearse

7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. EncodingStorage Access and Retrieval Memory’s Three Basic Tasks

8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. EncodingStorage Access and Retrieval Modification of the information to fit the preferred format for the memory system Memory’s Three Basic Functions Select stimulus from vast array of input

9 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. EncodingStorage Access and Retrieval Retention of encoded material over time Memory’s Three Basic Functions

10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. EncodingStorage Access and Retrieval The location and recovery of information from memory Memory’s Three Basic Functions

11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Each of the three memory stages encodes and stores memories in a different way, but all three work together to transform sensory experience into a lasting record that has a pattern of meaning. How Do We Form Memories?

12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Three Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory

13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The First Stage: Sensory Memory On the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second. Try to remember as many letters as you can.

14 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. D J B X H G C L Y

15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The First Stage: Sensory Memory How many can you recall?

16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. D J B X H G C L Y

17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Briefly holds information awaiting entry into working memory Sensory images; no meaningful encoding Holds twelve to sixteen items Lasts from one-quarter of a second to a few seconds Separate sensory registers for each sense

18 Multiple Sensory Stores Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 The First Stage: Sensory Memory Psychologists believe that, in this stage, memory images take the form of neural activity in the sense organs.

20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Involved in control of attention Attaches meaning to stimulation Makes associations among ideas and events Encodes information with meaning for long-term storage Capacity of 7 + or – 2 chunks of information Information stored for about twenty seconds in duration Rehearsal leads to longer duration Acoustic encoding

21 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory Chunking Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful units Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 Types of Rehearsal in Working Memory Maintenance Rehearsal Information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading. Elaborative Rehearsal Information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Components of Working Memory Central executive: directs attention to input Phonological loop: temporarily stores sounds Sketchpad: stores/manipulates visual images Episodic buffer: helps to remember events Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 A Model of Working Memory Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 5.6 A Model of Working Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin’s original model divided memory into three stages. Events must first be processed by sensory memory and short-term memory (now called working memory) before they finally go into long-term memory storage—from which they can later be retrieved back into working memory. Baddeley’s (2003) updated version of working memory includes a central executive that directs attention, a sketchpad for visual and spatial information, a phonological loop for sounds, and an episodic buffer that can combine many kinds of information into memories of events. This drawing includes all of these refinements to the original model of working memory. Source: Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–423.

25 Levels of Processing in Working Memory Information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 The Three Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-Term Memory Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Long-term storage of information Meaningful mental categories Unlimited capacity Unlimited duration

27 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Types of Information in Long-Term Memory Procedural Memory Stores memories for how things are done Declarative Memory Stores explicit information; Includes episodic and semantic memory

28 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Semantic Memory Stores general knowledge, including meanings of words and concepts Subdivisions of Declarative Memory Episodic Memory Stores personal events, or “episodes”

29 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 5.8 Components of Long-Term Memory Declarative memory involves knowing specific information—knowing “what.” It stores facts, personal experiences, language, concepts—things about which we might say, “I remember!” Procedural memory involves knowing “how”—particularly motor skills and behavioral learning.

30 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory Engram The physical changes associated with a memory trace Anterograde Amnesia Inability to form new memories Retrograde Amnesia Inability to remember information previously stored in memory

31 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. How Do We Retrieve Memories? Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued.

32 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Explicit Memory Processed with attention; can be consciously recalled How Do We Retrieve Memories? Implicit Memory Not deliberately learned; that of which you have no conscious awareness

33 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieval Cues Stimuli used to bring a memory to consciousness or to cue a behavior Priming Providing cues that stimulate memories without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory

34 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Priming Task Example If you are presented with the following words: assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate

35 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Priming Task An hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen: twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery

36 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _ _ us _ og _ y _ _ _ _ l _ m _ te Priming Task However, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:

37 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Priming Task While you did not actively try to remember “octopus” and “climate” from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this task: chipmunk octopus bogeyman climate

38 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieving Explicit Information Gist The sense or meaning, as contrasted with exact details Recall Retrieval method in which one must reproduce previously presented information Recognition Retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented

39 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Encoding Specificity Principle Memories are encoded with specific cues related to the context in which they were formed. The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better it will be remembered.

40 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Mood-Congruent Memory A memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one’s mood Happy moods are likely to trigger happy memories; depression perpetuates itself through biased retrieval of depressing memories.

41 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Prospective Memory Aspect of memory that enables one to remember to take some action in the future Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) Phenomenon Inability to recall a word known to be in one’s memory

42 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? Most of our memory problems arise from memory’s “seven sins,” which are really byproducts of otherwise adaptive features of human memory.

43 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Transience Absent- Mindedness Blocking MisattributionSuggestibility BiasPersistence Memory’s “Seven Sins”

44 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Transience The impermanence of a long-term memory: long-term memories gradually fade in strength over time. Relearning Savings method Forgetting curve

45 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve Savings demonstrated by relearning drops rapidly and reaches a plateau, below which little more is forgotten

46 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Forgetting Due to Interference Interference One item prevents us from forming a robust memory for another item. Proactive Interference Previously stored information prevents one from learning and remembering new information. Retroactive Interference Newly learned information prevents the retrieval of previously stored information.

47 Two Types of Interference Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Figure 5.11 Two Types of Interference In proactive interference, earlier learning (Spanish) interferes with memory for later information (French). In retroactive interference, new information (French) interferes with memory for information learned earlier (Spanish).

48 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Absent-Mindedness Forgetting caused by lapses in attention An attentive shift leads to retrieval failure E.g., change blindness

49 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Blocking Forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved E.g., forgetting a familiar person’s name

50 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Misattribution Memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved, but are associated with the wrong time, place, or person.

51 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Suggestibility Process of memory distortion as the result of deliberate or inadvertent suggestion Misinformation effect Fabricated memories

52 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitnesses Leading questions Substantial passage of time Repeated retrieval Age of the witness Unwarranted confidence

53 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Bias An attitude, belief, emotion, or experience that distorts memories Expectancy bias Self-consistency bias

54 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Persistence Memory problem in which unwanted memories cannot be put out of mind

55 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory Despite the grief they cause us, the “seven sins” may actually be byproducts of adaptive features of memory. Absent-mindedness is the byproduct of the useful ability to shift our attention.

56 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Improving Memory with Mnemonics Mnemonics Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already present in long-term memory Mnemonic strategies include: Method of loci Natural language mediators

57 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Using Psychology to Learn Psychology Make the material meaningful. Spread learning over time. Minimize interference. Review and elaborate material. Test yourself with retrieval cues.


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