Presentation on theme: "Retrieval How do we recall information?. Recall versus Recognition DasherBlazer DonnerPluto BlitzenRudolph DixonVixon CometThrasher DancerPrancer CupidLancer."— Presentation transcript:
Retrieval Cues Cues aid memory Give out priming worksheet Memory = web of associations Priming: “strand or web of associations that leads to a specific memory”
PRIMING EFFECT Priming effect: people respond faster or better to an item if a similar item preceded it. priming effect: generally considered involuntary and an unconscious phenomenon.
Priming Effect Expertise in area = more efficient recallExpertise in area = more efficient recall more elaborate, organized, interconnected,\ knowdedge = easier recall Two types of Priming Effect: repetition priming and semantic priming.
Repetition Priming 1.Repetition priming The more you experience it, the easier you retrieve it….
Semantic Priming 2. Semantic priming: The more you know, the more associations that can lead to a memory… A house divided against itself cannot stand.. Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves… With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in…
Priming Exercise 2
Context Effects To be in same context you experienced (encoded) something= better memory If you study in one location, you will probably score higher if you also took the test in the same place.
TOT Tip-Of-the-Tongue Effect Temporary inability to recall specific name or information. Usually remedied by semantic cues… “If you hadn’t asked, I could have told you…”
Let’s try your memory…. Commit to memory the following words… Commit to memory the following words…
Write down as many of the 12 words as you can remember…
Raise your hand if you remember the word aardvark. Raise your hand if you remember the word aardvark. Raise your hand if you remember the word sleep. Raise your hand if you remember the word sleep. Let’s check the list again…. Let’s check the list again…. How can we explain this? How can we explain this? o Associations can cause a person to feel that something occurred when it really hasn’t. o In other words, …..
Déjà Vu ! Eerie sense that you have experienced something before… Explanation: current situation cues past experiences that are very similar (your mind gets confused.)
Other explanations…. déjà vu 1. Biological perspective: sensory input follows several different pathways to higher processing centers of brain… thus one arrives milliseconds before another = separate copies of same experience 2. Perceptual experience can be split into two parts = sense of two different experiences (selective attention ) 3. Implicit familiarity without explicit recollection
Mood-Congruent Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's mood If you are depressed, you will more likely recall sad memories from you past. Moods also effect that way you interpret other peoples behavior
State-Dependent Theory Recalling events encoded while in a particular state of consciousness. Example: If you hide money while your drunk, you are more likely to remember where you hid it when you are intoxicated.
Pollyanna Principle Pleasant experiences over negative ones Pleasant experiences over negative ones Before, more efficiently, more accurately Before, more efficiently, more accurately Why? Why? More positive than negative experiences (We seek out positive experiences) Faster fading of negative experiences = healthy coping processes in memory Faster fading of negative experiences = healthy coping processes in memory Mild depression = negative and positive experiences fade evenly Mild depression = negative and positive experiences fade evenly