Presentation on theme: "Early Modern English Loan words 101 By, Meaghan Riemer."— Presentation transcript:
Early Modern English Loan words 101 By, Meaghan Riemer
Background info. Associate this stage with the Renaissance - think Shakespeare, and Milton, Marlowe and Jonson The period extends from 15th century to the 18th century Don’t forget that Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492 If you thought there were a lot of loan words for Middle English, then you never considered those in Early Modern English
Why so many loan words? English does not make the cut compared to fluidity of Latin, Italian, Greek, French and the like
Expanding world…of vocabulary By language By use - in other words law, home, art, drama, science, money, products, trade Beyond the old categories of middle English new ones emerged
Thank you Latin Two thirds of all the loan words of the period are borrowed/taken from Latin Entry to the great ancient Greeks
Some Latin Loan Words Dissonance- taken from the Latin word dissonantia Some quotes in Early Modern English- 1597-98 Bp. Hall “The Translation of one of Persius his Satyrs into English the difficultie and dissonance shall make good my assertion. - 1634 Milton “The…roar…filled the air with barbarous dissonance.
One more for good measure Trope-taken from the Latin tropus It is a figure of speech- 1573 Tusser- “Christmas is onely a figure or trope” Or by 1603- a short distinctive cadence at the close in a melody Or in 1677- the turning of the sun at the tropic
A Greek Word Hellenize 1613- Purchas “The hellenists were so called hellenizing or vsing the Greek tongue in their synagogues
Let’s not forget about Continental Europe Like in Middle English many borrowed words from England’s closest neighbors- France, Italy, the Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese
A few on loan from France Abolish - Fr. aboliss- Assets - Anglo-French assets Bigot- a hypocritical professor of religion, a hypocrite…generalized beyond religion in 1687
Of Course, some from Italy Ballot- Ballotta-“Boxes, into whiche, if he wyll, he may let fall his ballot that no man perceiue hym” Rocket- roccheta Argosy- Ragusea, pl. Ragusee, i.e. una (nave or caracca) Ragusea, a Ragusan (vessel or carack)-1577 DEE Mem. Perf. Art Navig. 9 Ragusyes, Hulks, Caruailes, and other forrein rich laden ships. 1587 FLEMING Contn. Holinsh. III. 313/2 A great argosie..hauing streamers and flags verie warlike, with two boats at either sterne. 1590 GREENE Wks. (Gros.) VII. 224 All the Argoses, Gallyes, Galeons, and Pataches in Venice.DEEFLEMINGGREENE
Spanish and Portuguese words Potato-from Spanish potata which was adapted from the Haitian batata Hurricane-from Spanish huracan Coco or cocoa- first used by Vasco da Gama in 1498 (coquos)- the malay’s called it tenga…but the Portuguese named it quoquos
Now for the fun words Chintz- from the Hindi word Chint Assassin-from arabic for hashish eaters Damn- as in “Not worth a damn” and the like - taken from the Hindi word for a coin-dawm
More words taken from English Explorations Skunk-taken from the American Indian tribe Abenaki- segankw, segongw- first used in 1634 Cash- ad. (ultimately) Tamil ksu (‘or perhaps some Konkani form of it’), name of a small coin, or weight of money:Skr. karsha ‘a weight of silver or gold equal to of a tul’ (Williams); Singhalese ksi coin. The early Portuguese writers represented the native word by cas, casse, caxa, the Fr. by cas, the Eng.
Oops- I forgot about the Dutch Daffodil - Latin species name is aphelosus- the d probably added because of the Dutch and Flemish said t’affodil - thus the t sound morphed into the d sound eventually Filibuster-taken from the Dutch vrijbuiter- 1587 Garrad Arte Warre (1591) 236 Such..as bring wares to the campe, he [the High Marshall of the Field] must take order that they be courteously..vsed..procuring them a conuoy..to the intent they may..remaine..satisfied, without suspect of being robbed..of theeues and flibutors. Ibid. 154 Clearing..the hye wayes..from fleebooters.
References: Crystal, David. The Stories of English. Woodstock, NY, Overlook Press, Inc: 2004 Oxford English Dictionary Online