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Entomology for the Masters - a brief history - insect overview - Order recognition - identification activity - plant damage - garden friend and foe Michael.

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Presentation on theme: "Entomology for the Masters - a brief history - insect overview - Order recognition - identification activity - plant damage - garden friend and foe Michael."— Presentation transcript:

1 Entomology for the Masters - a brief history - insect overview - Order recognition - identification activity - plant damage - garden friend and foe Michael Meyer, Ph.D. Dept. Organismal and Environmental Biology Christopher Newport University

2 John Henry Comstock - the first entomology instructor Comstock  Traver  Edmunds  McCafferty  Meyer

3 What’s not an insect [or “bug”]?

4

5 Class: Arachnida (arachnids) Order: Opiliones (harvestmen) - single body segment - predators; scavengers of animals and plants - repellent secreted as defense

6

7 Class: Arachnida (arachnids) Order: Acari (mites, ticks, chiggers) - variety of life histories - predators, herbivores, parasites, suspension feeders - terrestrial and aquatic (fresh and salt water) - may be vectors of disease

8

9 Class: Arachnida (arachnids) Order: Araneae (spiders) - poison = protein-digesting - fangs are distal portion of chelicerae - spinnerets and silk (six main kinds) production

10

11 Class: Diplopoda [millipedes] - generally cylindrical - 2 pair of legs on body segments - slow; feed on plants or decaying materials

12

13 Class: Chilopoda [centipedes] - flattened; one pair of legs on body segments - fast: predators, feed on insects/other arthropods - poison jaws paralyze prey

14 Why should “we” study entomology?

15 Why should we study entomology? 1.Insects are the dominant group of animals. - the Earth’s most varied organism - 80% of all known animals, 57% of all life - >1 million described species [54K vertebrates]

16 2. Many insects are valuable to us. - produce goods (i.e., honey, silk), services (i.e., pollination, pest control), and food (i.e., fruits, vegetables) - research animals (i.e., Drosophila, bomb-sniffing wasps)

17 3. Some insects are harmful. - destroy crops, animals, and possessions - transmit human disease - just plain annoying

18 4. Insects are fascinating/interesting. - beautiful, fascinating organisms - used throughout human culture/history

19 Why are insects so successful?

20 Factors in the success of insects. 1.Highly adaptable exoskeleton. -legs suited for locomotion on land and in water -tracheae system for respiration -wax covering to reduce the loss of moisture

21 2. Colonization of the terrestrial environment before chordates. - Early Devonian (410 MYA) = first fossil record - Early Jurassic (200 MYA) = therians (early mammals)

22 3. Small body size. - occupy an enormous variety of small places

23 4. High birthrate and short generation time. - little time to grow to maturity (due to small size) - increased potential for genetic change in populations

24 5. Highly efficient flight. - escape unfavorable habitats and colonize new ones - escape enemies, find food, mates, places to oviposite

25 6. Life history with metamorphosis. - reduced competition between larvae and adults - larvae utilized food inaccessible to adults

26 Generalized Body Regions

27

28 Head - mouthparts

29 Wings

30 - generalized [membranous] [dragonfly]

31 Wing modification

32 - elytra [beetle]

33 Wing modification

34 - hemelytra [true bug]

35 Wing modification A Blan

36 Wing modification A Blan - tegmina [roaches and “songsters”]

37 Wing modification

38 - halteres [true flies]

39 Abdomen

40 Aphids: cornicles

41 Abdomen

42 Earwig: modified cerci

43 How well do you know the insect Orders?

44

45 Ephemeroptera [for a day wings] (Mayflies) - larvae are aquatic - subimago life stage - adults w/ vestigial mouthparts - adults w/ two or three long “tails”

46

47 Odonata [tooth] (Dragonflies and Damselflies) - larvae are aquatic, w/ prehensile labium - wings held perpendicular or parallel to body - predators; catch basket - live 3/4 weeks [damsel], 6/10 weeks [dragon]

48

49 Orthoptera [straight wings] (Grasshopper, Crickets, and Katydids) - generally with modified hind legs - thickened forewings called tegmina - many are musicians - most are plant feeders [i.e., pests]

50

51 Phasmatodea [small phantom] (Walking Sticks) - camouflaged, stick-like body - elongate thorax; reduced or absent wings - eggs scattered on ground [dropped from trees]

52

53 Dermaptera [skin wings] (Earwigs) - modified cerci: female strait, male curved - reduced forewings [winged] or wingless - antennal segments increase with molts - nocturnal, most feed on plant matter

54

55 Isoptera [equal wings] (Termites) - multiple casts: queen, king, workers, soldiers - cellulose eating; many with symbiotic protozoan - often referred to as “white ants”

56

57 Mantodea [soothsayer] (Mantids) - can move head capsule - modified forelegs with elongate spines - overwinter as eggs in ootheca [200+ eggs] - many species in US are introduced

58

59 Blattodea [cockroach] (Cockroaches) - oval, flattened; cursorial - leathery forewings [tegmina] - head concealed by pronotum - egg capsule [ootheca] - primarily tropical; annoying

60

61 Hemiptera [half wings] (True Bugs, Cicadas, Hoppers, Whiteflies, Scales) - piercing-sucking mouthparts - huge diversity: body form, wings, antennae - predators, herbivores, parasites: may be vectors

62

63 Coleoptera [sheath wings] (Beetles) - modified forewing [elytra] - rule the world (by numbers); 30,000 species in NA - tremendous variation of habitats and life history strategies

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65 Neuroptera [nerve wings] (Alderflies, Lacewings, Antlions, Owlflies, etc.) - soft bodied, wings with many crossviens - larvae and adults predaceous; diverse

66

67 Hymenoptera [god of marriage wings] (Sawflies, Wasps, Ants, Bees) - many have slender waist [pedicel] - many social; most important pollinators - hugely beneficial (i.e., predators, parasitoids) - ovipositor modified into a sting [some]

68

69 Lepidoptera [scale wings] (Butterflies, Skippers, Moths) - scales cover wings, body and legs - variety of antennae; coiled proboscis - 11,500 species in NA; can be plant pests - some with tympanum to detect bat echolocation

70

71 Mecoptera [long wings] (Scorpionflies) mm in length; known as snow fleas - male genitalia similar in appearance to scorpion sting - many extant families/genera found in fossil record

72

73 Diptera [two wings] (Flies, Midges, Mosquitos) - modified hind wings [halteres] - great diversity of natural history strategies; many are pests; vector of many diseases - variety of mouth types

74 Identification Activity Can you identify each of the insect Orders?

75 Insect caused plant damage. What gets eaten?

76 Insect damage. - leaf chewers [Coleoptera and Orthoptera]

77 Insect damage. - leaf miners [Diptera]

78 Insect damage. - fruit and flower feeders [Diptera and Hymenoptera]

79 Insect damage. - sap suckers [Hemiptera and “Homoptera”]

80 Insect damage. - gall makers [Diptera and Hymenoptera]

81 Insect damage. - stem and twig damagers [Orthoptera and “Homoptera”]

82 Insect damage. - trunk and branch borers [Coleoptera]

83 Insect damage. - root and bulb feeders [“Homoptera”]

84 Garden foes.

85 A. Caterpillars [Lepidoptera]

86 Garden foes.

87 B. Beetles [especially weevils; Coleoptera: Curculionidae]

88 Garden foes.

89 C. Yellow jackets [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

90 Garden foes. D. A plethora of sapsuckers

91 Garden foes.

92 D1. Aphids [Hemiptera: Aphidae]

93 Garden foes.

94 D2. Psyllids [Hemiptera: Psyllidae]

95 Garden foes.

96 D3. Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

97 Garden foes.

98 D4. Scale insects [many: Hemiptera]

99 Garden foes.

100 D5. Leafhoppers, treehoppers, spittlebugs [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae]

101 Garden foes.

102 D6. Stinkbugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]

103 Garden foes.

104 D7. Lace bugs [Hemiptera: Tingidae]

105 Garden foes.

106 D8. Thrips [Thysanoptera]

107 Garden friends [predators].

108 Lady bird beetles [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae]

109 Garden friends [predators].

110 Ground beetles [Coleoptera: Carabidae]

111 Garden friends [predators].

112 Rove beetles [Coleoptera: Staphhylinidae]

113 Garden friends [predators].

114 Fireflies [Coleoptera: Lampyridae]

115 Garden friends [predators].

116 Lacewings (larva) [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]

117 Garden friends [predators].

118 Lacewings (adult) [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]

119 Garden friends [predators].

120 Hover flies [Diptera: Syrphidae]

121 Garden friends [predators].

122 Stink bugs [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]

123 Garden friends [predators].

124 Assassin bugs [Hemiptera: Reduviidae]

125 Garden friends [predators]. Assassin bugs [Hemiptera: Reduviidae]

126 Garden friends [predators].

127 Mantids [Mantodea: Mantidae]

128 Garden friends [predators].

129 Ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae]

130 Garden friends [predators].

131 Paper wasps [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

132 Garden friends [predators].

133 Yellow jackets [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]

134 Garden friends [parasites].

135 Tachinid flies [Diptera: Tachinidae]

136 Garden friends [parasites].

137 Ichneumonids and Braconids [Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Braconidae]

138 Garden friends [parasites]. Many small wasps [Hymenoptera]

139 Thank you very kindly!


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