Presentation on theme: "Some Orders of Insect Pests 511 Zoo"— Presentation transcript:
1 Some Orders of Insect Pests 511 Zoo Prepared by: Dr. Reem Alajmi
2 Thysanura: The bristletails (silverfish and firebrats) Adult Description and identification:Mouthparts: chewingSize: Common species are about 12 mm long.Wings: NoneDistinguishing characteristics: Elongate and somewhat flattened; body covered with scales; 3 caudal filaments, 2 lateral, 1 central..Metamorphosis: None (ametamorphosis); immature (called juveniles) look like adults.
3 Thysanura: The bristletails (silverfish and firebrats) Habitat: Debris, under bark, in buildings (some cool and damp, others warmer sites).Pest or Beneficial Status: Primarily nuisance, some property damage by silverfish and firebrats (may feed on starch of book bindings, similar materials).
5 Ephemeroptera: The mayflies Adults:Mouthparts: None (vestigial)Size: 2 – 32 mm long, plus long caudal filamentsWings: Usually 4, some species only 2. Membranous, with numerous net-like cross-veins. Fore wings are larger, triangular.
6 Ephemeroptera: The mayflies Other distinguishing characteristics: Short hair-like (setaceous) antennae; 2 or 3 long caudal filaments.Habitat: Immature are aquatic; adults are found near water. Most nymphs feed on algae or decaying organic material; some are predaceous.Metamorphosis: Incomplete (naiads do not look like adults and live in water; wing “pads” develop gradually and externally through successive stages.
7 Ephemeroptera: The mayflies Immatures (called naiads):Leaf-like abdominal gills; 3 long caudal filaments; (sexually immature pre-adult) emerges from the water, molts to the adult stage the next day.Pest or Beneficial Status: Important fish food; indicators of water quality; mass emergence may be problematic.
8 Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Adults:Mouthparts: ChewingSize: 20 to 135 mm.Wings: 4, membranous, with numerous net-like cross-veins. Wings are marked by a stigma -- a thickened, darkened cell at the costal margin of the fore and hind wings.
9 Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Other distinguishing characteristics: Very large compound eyes; short hair- like (setaceous) antennaSuborder Anisoptera: dragonflies -- hind wings wider than front wings; wings held horizontally at rest.Suborder Zygoptera: damselflies -- fore and hind wings similar in shape and narrowed at base; wings held together above the body when at rest.
10 Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Left: A dragonfly (Texas A & M University). Right: A damselfly (University of Florida).
11 Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Metamorphosis: Incomplete (naiads do not look like adults and live in water; wing “pads” develop gradually and externally through successive stages.)Immatures (called naiads):Aquatic; labium modified to catch prey; dragonflies with internal (rectal) gills; damsel fly naiads with 3 leaf-like gills at the end of the abdomen.
12 Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Habitat: Immature are aquatic; adults are found near water. Nymphs and adults are predaceous.Pest or Beneficial Status: Generalist predators; indicators of water quality.
13 Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids AdultMouthparts: ChewingSize: Moderate to largeWings: 4, front wings (tegmina) are leathery, hind wings are membranous. Some are wingless. Wings (and legs) may bear sound-producing structures.
14 Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids Other distinguishing characteristics: Elongate bodies; well-developed cerci; antennae are mostly long and filiform; the ovipositor may be long; hind legs of most are modified for jumping.
15 Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids Metamorphosis: Gradual.Immature (nymphs):Are adult-like, and external wing pads develop as nymphs mature.Habitat: Many types of vegetation
16 Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids Pest or Beneficial Status: Some grasshoppers are crop pests; some crickets are household nuisance pests. In some parts of the world, migratory locusts occur in great numbers and destroy vast areas of crops and other vegetation.
17 Dermaptera: The earwigs AdultsMouthparts: chewingSize: mmWings: 4 or none; forewings shortened and thickened; hind wings membranous and folded.Distinguishing characteristics: Enlarged, pincer-like cerci.
18 Dermaptera: The earwigs Habitat: Moist debris and decaying materials. Earwigs are nocturnal and feed on plants or decaying plant material; some are predaceous (and beneficial).Metamorphosis: Gradual; nymphs resemble adults and share the same habitat. In those with wings, external wing pads develop as nymphs mature.Immature (called nymphs): Similar to adults.
19 Dermaptera: The earwigs Pest or Beneficial Status: Earwigs are usually pests only as nuisance creatures, but one species, the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), is a pest of vegetables, ornamental plants, and fruits. Its feeding leaves scars on the surface of apples and pears.
20 Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees) AdultMouthparts: chewing or chewing/lappingSize: Minute to largeWings: 4 or none, front wing larger than hind wing, front and hind wings are coupled by hamuli to function as one.
21 Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees) Antennae: Long and filiform (hairlike) in Symphyta; many forms in ApocritaOther characteristics: Abdomen is broadly joined to the thorax in Symphyta; constricted to form a "waist"-like propodeum in Apocrita.
22 Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees) Metamorphosis: CompleteImmatures:In Symphyta, eruciform (caterpillar-like), but with 6 or more pairs of prolegs, all are plant- feeders.In Apocrita, larvae have true head capsules, but no legs; some feed on other arthropodsHabitat: On vegetation, as parasites of other insects, in social colonies
23 Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees) Pest or Beneficial Status: A few plant pests (sawflies); many are beneficial as parasites of other insects and as pollinators. Honey bees are important pollinators and produce honey. Stinging species can injure humans and domestic animals.
24 In a group of three, make small presentation within 2-3 slides for one of the insect pests order that is not mention in this lecture…