Presentation on theme: "Some Orders of Insect Pests 511 Zoo Prepared by: Dr. Reem Alajmi."— Presentation transcript:
Some Orders of Insect Pests 511 Zoo Prepared by: Dr. Reem Alajmi
Thysanura: The bristletails (silverfish and firebrats) Adult Description and identification: Mouthparts: chewing Size: Common species are about 12 mm long. Wings: None Distinguishing characteristics: Elongate and somewhat flattened; body covered with scales; 3 caudal filaments, 2 lateral, 1 central.. Metamorphosis: None (ametamorphosis); immature (called juveniles) look like adults.
Habitat: Debris, under bark, in buildings (some cool and damp, others warmer sites). Pest or Beneficial Status: Primarily nuisance, some property damage by silverfish and firebrats (may feed on starch of book bindings, similar materials). Thysanura: The bristletails (silverfish and firebrats)
Left: a silverfish. Right: a firebrat
Ephemeroptera: The mayflies Adults: Mouthparts: None (vestigial) Size: 2 – 32 mm long, plus long caudal filaments Wings: Usually 4, some species only 2. Membranous, with numerous net-like cross-veins. Fore wings are larger, triangular.
Other distinguishing characteristics: Short hair-like (setaceous) antennae; 2 or 3 long caudal filaments. Habitat: Immature are aquatic; adults are found near water. Most nymphs feed on algae or decaying organic material; some are predaceous. Metamorphosis: Incomplete (naiads do not look like adults and live in water; wing “pads” develop gradually and externally through successive stages. Ephemeroptera: The mayflies
Immatures (called naiads): Leaf-like abdominal gills; 3 long caudal filaments; (sexually immature pre-adult) emerges from the water, molts to the adult stage the next day. Pest or Beneficial Status: Important fish food; indicators of water quality; mass emergence may be problematic. Ephemeroptera: The mayflies
Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies Adults: Mouthparts: Chewing Size: 20 to 135 mm. Wings: 4, membranous, with numerous net-like cross-veins. Wings are marked by a stigma -- a thickened, darkened cell at the costal margin of the fore and hind wings.
Other distinguishing characteristics: Very large compound eyes; short hair- like (setaceous) antenna Suborder Anisoptera: dragonflies -- hind wings wider than front wings; wings held horizontally at rest. Suborder Zygoptera: damselflies -- fore and hind wings similar in shape and narrowed at base; wings held together above the body when at rest. Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies
Left: A dragonfly (Texas A & M University). Right: A damselfly (University of Florida). Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies
Metamorphosis: Incomplete (naiads do not look like adults and live in water; wing “pads” develop gradually and externally through successive stages.) Immatures (called naiads): Aquatic; labium modified to catch prey; dragonflies with internal (rectal) gills; damsel fly naiads with 3 leaf-like gills at the end of the abdomen. Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies
Habitat: Immature are aquatic; adults are found near water. Nymphs and adults are predaceous. Pest or Beneficial Status: Generalist predators; indicators of water quality. Odonata: The dragonflies and damselflies
Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids Adult Mouthparts: Chewing Size: Moderate to large Wings: 4, front wings (tegmina) are leathery, hind wings are membranous. Some are wingless. Wings (and legs) may bear sound-producing structures.
Other distinguishing characteristics: Elongate bodies; well-developed cerci; antennae are mostly long and filiform; the ovipositor may be long; hind legs of most are modified for jumping. Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids
Metamorphosis: Gradual. Immature (nymphs): Are adult-like, and external wing pads develop as nymphs mature. Habitat: Many types of vegetation Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids
Pest or Beneficial Status: Some grasshoppers are crop pests; some crickets are household nuisance pests. In some parts of the world, migratory locusts occur in great numbers and destroy vast areas of crops and other vegetation. Orthoptera: The grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids
Dermaptera: The earwigs Adults Mouthparts: chewing Size: 4 - 30 mm Wings: 4 or none; forewings shortened and thickened; hind wings membranous and folded. Distinguishing characteristics: Enlarged, pincer-like cerci.
Habitat: Moist debris and decaying materials. Earwigs are nocturnal and feed on plants or decaying plant material; some are predaceous (and beneficial). Metamorphosis: Gradual; nymphs resemble adults and share the same habitat. In those with wings, external wing pads develop as nymphs mature. Immature (called nymphs): Similar to adults. Dermaptera: The earwigs
Pest or Beneficial Status: Earwigs are usually pests only as nuisance creatures, but one species, the European earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), is a pest of vegetables, ornamental plants, and fruits. Its feeding leaves scars on the surface of apples and pears. Dermaptera: The earwigs
Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees) Adult Mouthparts: chewing or chewing/lapping Size: Minute to large Wings: 4 or none, front wing larger than hind wing, front and hind wings are coupled by hamuli to function as one.
Antennae: Long and filiform (hairlike) in Symphyta; many forms in Apocrita Other characteristics: Abdomen is broadly joined to the thorax in Symphyta; constricted to form a "waist"-like propodeum in Apocrita. Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees)
Metamorphosis: Complete Immatures: In Symphyta, eruciform (caterpillar-like), but with 6 or more pairs of prolegs, all are plant- feeders. In Apocrita, larvae have true head capsules, but no legs; some feed on other arthropods Habitat: On vegetation, as parasites of other insects, in social colonies Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees)
Pest or Beneficial Status: A few plant pests (sawflies); many are beneficial as parasites of other insects and as pollinators. Honey bees are important pollinators and produce honey. Stinging species can injure humans and domestic animals. Hymenoptera (sawflies, parasitic wasps, ants, wasps, and bees)
In a group of three, make small presentation within 2-3 slides for one of the insect pests order that is not mention in this lecture…